ADAM William (1751–1839), politician and advocate. Autograph letter signed to John Adam Esq, Patna, care of Henry Trail Esq Calcutta, folio, 4 sides including an address panel (with several interesting postal franks), East Grinstead Assizes, 18th March 1798, reporting on family affairs beginning with John's brother Charles "I cannot let the event of Charles’s arrival pass over wh'out notice. You may easily conceive our surprise & Delight at seeing him – and seeing him in size, look, manner, & intellect, quite a Captain – When He arrived Lord Spencer seemed very unmanageable, and I own I never in my life have felt more uneasiness & vexation than at the thoughts of his being thrown back. The Duke of York interfered with a Degree of Zeal & Friendship which I never can forget. And I have now the pleasure to learn than his interference will be effectual: And that in a very short time Chas will be again Master & Commander .......... [he] returned to this situation of Lt. with an attention to his duty wch shows him fit for great things" and explaining the "flaw in his original commission". Of John's brother William he says "Wm leaves Charter House at Easter – and will go to Edinburgh for a year at least I think. I took Mama & Tat to Maidstone assizes with him .........He told, when he came home, that Papa had sent a man to Jail for two years for saying the Soldiers were Rascals – The fact being that I prosecuted a man for circulating a Hand Bill among the Soldiers desiring them to imitate the Sailors – He was convicted, & Buller sentenced him to two years imprisonment", and of his brother Frederick "Fredk. has got 6 months leave of absence we shall get him off from joining till next year – By that time he will be able Bodied & well educated. He is a very fine fellow astonishingly amusing but a little volatile". William also reports on matters relating to the family's Blair Adam estates, and various plantings that have been undertaken. The letter has multiple folds; a small piece of paper torn from the first page border (affects about 3 words); a hole from the broken seal (2 words affected); and a piece of paper torn from the second page border where the seal was once affixed (affects a few words on side 3). See PHOTO
William Adam (1751–1839) was the son of the Scottish architect John Adam (1721–1792) and Jean Ramsay (1721–1795), and was the nephew of the architects Robert and James Adam. He became an advocate in Scotland in 1773 and was called to the English bar in 1782. In 1777 he married Eleanora Elphinstone (1749–1808) with whom he had a daughter and five sons, the first of whom was John, the recipient of this letter.
Adam represented a number of constituencies in Parliament throughout his life. In his early political career he took a very hard line on American issues, criticizing Lord North for being too conciliatory before the outbreak of fighting (but was later to support him). Adam particularly disliked Charles James Fox, attacking him verbally in Parliament, and even fighting him in a duel (in 1779). Adam was appointed to the political office of Treasurer of the Ordnance in the period 1780 to 1783. In February 1783 he spoke and voted against peace with the United States. After that, despite his past animosity to Charles James Fox, Adam supported the Fox-North Coalition as the only way to stop Lord North's party becoming politically irrelevant.
Adam was out of parliament between 1794 and 1806 during
which time he sought to advance his legal career, was appointed King’s Counsel
in 1796, and developed a lucrative practice, specializing at the bar of the
Commons and also the Lords. His need for money was considerable because of
inherited debts from his father who died in 1792, and by 1808 was forced to
borrow money to pay the debts of his eldest son, John, in India.
William’s eldest son John Adam (1779–1825) became an administrator in India, while other siblings mentioned in the letter are Charles Adam (1780-1853) who entered the navy, became an Admiral and First Sea Lord; William George Adam (1781-1839) who became a lawyer; and Frederick William Adam (1784-1853) who served in the army, became a General (he fought at Waterloo), and served as Governor of Madras.
ARNOT, William (1808–1875), Free Church of Scotland minister. Autograph letter signed to an unnamed correspondent, 4 sides, 8vo, Glasgow, 14 November [no year, but pre-1863]. Regarding a lecture he is to give in Carlisle, commenting “I know nobody there, but I love the Dean for lecturing against tobacco”.£30
Arnot became associated with several nationwide evangelical causes, and lectured widely. In his autobiography he vividly recalled his first hangover, prompting no doubt his almost fanatical commitment to temperance. He probably refers in the letter to the “teetotal dean”, Francis Close, who was appointed dean of Carlisle in 1856. ODNB
BARRATT, Henry (1840-1903?). Presentation dedication from the Officers and Teachers of the Bowdon Downs Congregational Sunday School to Mr Henry Barratt, comprising a manuscript dedication and 41 signatures on 4 vellum leaves, bound in an attractive full morocco binding (about 9 x 11 inches) with inlaid monogram HB, and attractive inner boards with fine tooling and silk panel and silk end papers. The manuscript dedication refers to Henry Barratt's wish to step down upon health grounds after giving 35 years as a teacher and officer in the Sunday School. Some of the manuscript signatures are indistinct. The item comes with copies of some census returns and an obituary notice. PHOTO
Henry Barratt was born at Heaton Norris, Lancashire in 1840 to publican Thomas Barratt and wife Elizabeth. In 1860 he was appointed to the North Cheshire Water Company for whom he worked until his death. In the following year he married Elizabeth Stokoe (born York 1836) by whom he had 6 daughters. Henry dedicated much time to charitable work and to improving educational opportunities in the community, especially to the Newtown Night Mission, Bowdon Downs Congregational Church and its Sunday School, and the Altrincham Free Library & Technical Instruction Committee.
BEALE of Biddendon, Kent. A small archive of manuscript items relating to the Beale family of Biddendon, Kent, notably an interesting Deed of Composition relating to the bankruptcy of Seaman Cooke Beale in 1781. See PHOTO. The items are as follows:
Seaman Cooke Beale (1742-1789) wharf manager in the City of London, provides a link to the various items and people in this archive. His father was Richard Beale (1717-1786) of Biddenden, Kent, (item 1) who married Anne Cooke in 1741 at the church of St Benet Paul's Wharf, in the City of London. Seaman Cooke Beale married Sarah Speere in 1768, by whom he had at least 6 children. Their first son was Richard Beale (1771-1836) of River Hall, Biddendon, whose son was William Beale (b.1797) (items 3-9 relate), who became a solicitor.
BEATTY family of Lisburn, Co. Antrim. A family archive of genealogical documents and ambrotype photographs relating to the Beatty family and connected families in Northern Ireland, comprising:
Several of the larger paper documents have splits along the
To view images click on PHOTOS
The Beatty family line is the focus of this collection which includes the ambrotype photographs featuring David Beatty (1805-1884) of Lisburn and his wife Margaret née Bell (1806-1871). His father, Thomas Beatty, was a tanner, served as 1st Lieutenant in the Lisburn Yeomanry Cavalry, and was engaged in the Battle of Antrim in 1798. David Beatty followed his father’s trade as a tanner and currier in Bow Street, Lisburn, later becoming a J. P. and vice chairman of the Union Workhouse. David and Margaret Beatty’s son Robert Beatty (subject of the quarter plate ambrotype) was born in 1836, and entered the Madras Native Infantry - the ambrotype photograph was probably taken soon after he entered the regiment. Robert Beatty was promoted to Major in 1873, and rose through the ranks (see London Gazette) to Major-General, finally being transferred to the Unemployed Supernumerary List in 1893. Robert married Alice Betanna Catharine Pounden (b.1854) of Ballywalter Co. Wexford in 1875 by whom he had five sons. Robert died in 1909. The paper archive provides a wealth of genealogical information on the extended Beatty family line, and also contains some interesting reminiscences of life and events in Northern Ireland.
Blair, John (d. 1782), Church of England clergyman and chronologist. Autograph letter signed to an unnamed correspondent, 2 sides, 4to, Burton Coygles, Nr. Coultersworth, Lincs. September 18th 1768. Regarding a book for Dr Robertson: "I am very sorry I have looked up in my library my copy of Nostradamus’s History of Provence which I promised to lend Dr. Robertson if he wanted it, of which he was to have acquainted with me immediately upon his going to Scotland whether he could find it in any library in Edinburgh and as he did not write me for 6 weeks after he went down, I concluded he had got it there and so did not have it out – I wrote him of this about a fortnight ago in answer to letter I had from him about it – perhaps you may find it in some of the booksellers sales which you should buy and send down to him as I believe it will be of some service to him before he prints his Introductory Volume which I think he told me he was to revise and print last. I should be glad to know from time to time how the sale of my new Edition goes on & whether the Demand continues principally for the Small Paper in which case I must come to town a little the sooner in order to have a fresh number printed off." Narrow strip of paper adhering to back edge indicating removal from an album. The letter comes with a separate sheet of paper with four 18th century printed journal cuttings relating to Blair.
Blair was famous for his "Chronology and History of the World" first published in 1754 (leading to his election as an FRS), and a new and enlarged edition ("my new Edition") was published in 1768. The historian William Robertson spent ten years amassing his "History of the Reign of the Emperor Charles the Fifth" which appeared in three quarto volumes in 1769, and as this letter refers, he was trying to locate a copy of Histoire et chronique de Provence by Caesar de Nostradamus.(Lyon 1614), in order to complete the introduction.
BRAND, John (1744–1806), antiquary and topographer. Autograph letter signed to an unnamed correspondent, 4to, 1 side plus integral blank (cut at the base, probably removing correspondent's name), Somerset Place, January 13th 1797, reporting that he has "obeyed your anonymous commands in offering your apology to the Society of Antiquaries of London, who ...... desire to return the unknown author their best thanks ........ my most respectful acknowledgements for the other copy presented to myself ....... which I have read with great avidity and from which I am proud to own that I have received very copious and most curious information relating to our divine poet and the state of our infant drama etc."
Brand is best known for his Observations on the popular antiquities of Great Britain first published in 1777. He was appointed Secretary to the Society of Antiquaries in 1784, and was annually re-elected until his death in 1806.
BRITTON, John (1771–1857), antiquary and topographer. Autograph letter signed in third person to Miss Innes, 8vo, 1 side of a bifolium with blank addressed to “Miss Innes Gt Queen St”, April 2 1829, apologising that he has not yet had time “to devote to her essay; & from the pressure of his engagements will not be able to read it in less than 2 or 3 weeks” but adds that he is anxious to do something to forward her views and promote her interest when he can. On the address panel a pencil written list of 9 place names. Piece of paper torn from the integral blank from the broken seal, and two mounting marks on the blank.
John Britton is best known for his topographical publications, not least The Beauties of England and Wales written with Edward Brayley and others, which ran to twenty-seven bound volumes and took twenty years to complete. Other major undertakings include his Architectural Antiquities of Great Britain (9 vols., 1805–1814) and Cathedral Antiquities of England (14 vols., 1814–1835), amongst many other fine works. In 1845 a Britton Club was formed, and a sum of £1000 was subscribed and given to Britton, who was subsequently granted a civil list pension by Disraeli, then chancellor of the exchequer.
There is just a chance that Britton’s correspondent was Miss Maria Innes (1795-1880) who with her sisters Anne and Eliza produced in 1827-1829 The Annual Peerage under the name of the herald Edmund Lodge (1756-1839).
CONNECTION WITH DAVID GARRICK
BERTIE, Lord Robert (1721-1782). Small archive of five Chancery documents in the case between Lord Robert Bertie and his wife Mary Lady Bertie by Bills of Revivor and Supplement, against Wyndham et al, folio, 19 sides in total, with embossed tax stamps, variously dated during 1766. Amongst the list of plaintiffs in the document of 14th July 1766, are David Garrick and Benjamin Stillingfleet, plus a wealth of other names throughout the documents, including the families of Blacknell, Blundell, Bracebridge, Huddleston, Chetwynd, Dampier, Lindon, Perrott, Ryder, Standish, Wilmot, etc. PHOTO
Lord Robert Bertie, son of Robert, first Duke of
Ancaster, married the Rt Hon. Mary Baroness Dowager Raymond in 1762. He was Lord
of the Bedchamber, colonel of the 7th Regiment of Foot (Royal Fusileers), and
defended Admiral Byng during his trial in 1757. The impending marriage of Lord
Bertie and Lady Mary Raymond, is touched upon in a letter from Horace Walpole to
George Montagu, written in 1762 "We had a tempest of wind and snow for two
hours beyond any thing I remember ..... Lady Raymond's house in Berkeley-square
is totally unroofed; and Lord Robert Bertie, who is going to marry her, may
descend into it like a Jupiter Pluvius".
BARBADOS LOCAL GOVERNMENT CRISIS 1709
Board of Trade and the Plantations. Letter signed Stamford, Ph.Meadows, J.Pulteney and Cha.Turner to the Earl of Sunderland, 2 sides folio plus integral blank, docketed on reverse, Whitehall, January 24th 1708/9, informing Sunderland that since their letter to him of the 21st they have received a letter from Mr Crow, Governor of Barbados “wherein he aquaints us that upon his Suspending Col. Sharp, Mr Walker, and Mr Beresford from the Council, there were then but 5 of the Council resident upon the Island for whch reason he had sworn in Mr Berwick and Mr Aynsworth, so that in that respect he has pursued his Instructions ……. by the same Packet we have received the Governor’s reasons for his Suspending the said three Councillors, which reason we shall consider …. had we received this Packet sooner we had not troubled you with our Last letter”. Signs of mounting to rear blank edge. An attractive document. PHOTO
A letter from Sharp, Walker and Beresford, dated 2 November 1708 giving an account of their suspension came before the Board of Trade and the Plantations on January 19th 1708/9, and the following day the Earl of Stamford communicated another letter to the Board 'from Major John Pilgrim, one of the members of Councill in Barbadoes, to his lordship, of the 2nd of November, 1708, complaining of Mr. Crow's proceeding, which was read, and directions were given for preparing the draught of a letter to the Earl of Sunderland, relating to the suspension of Colonel Sharp, Mr. Walker, and Mr. Beresford, from the Council in that island’' [from ‘Journal, January 1709: Journal Book M’, Journals of the Board of Trade and Plantations] . The resulting letter to the Earl of Sunderland was signed on January 21st. The Board met again on January 24th to consider a letter received from Governor Crow dated 23 September, together with a packet of related documents in Crow’s defence, and as a result drew up this letter.
Mitford Crow (1669-1719) was appointed governor of Barbados in 1706, arriving on 8 May 1707 finding the island's government ‘in the last distraction, nothing but corruption and parties’. His high-handed treatment (and eventual suspension) of several of his councillors, his dismissal of several justices and militia officers, and his attempts to end the monopoly of a small group of barristers made him many enemies, who accused him of siding with factions, possessing an arbitrary attitude, and acting as the supreme legal authority of the island. The council of trade reprimanded him twice in 1708, and in July 1709 Queen Anne sent him a letter stating her resentment of his disrespect in disobeying her order to restore the councillors. In October 1709 he was ordered to return to England to defend himself before the privy council, and left Barbados in May 1710.(ODNB)
Charles Spencer, third earl of Sunderland (1675–1722), was appointed to the cabinet as Secretary of State for the Southern Department holding office from 1706-1710. The signatories of the letter were:
Thomas Grey, second earl of Stamford (1653/4–1720), conspirator and politician. Queen Anne dismissed Stamford from his offices in 1702, but he returned to serve as first lord of the Board of Trade from 1707 to June 1711.
Sir Philip Meadows (1626-1718), diplomat. Meadows was a skilled and experienced diplomat under Cromwell’s Protectorate. He became a commissioner for the Board of Trade in 1695 and remained in office to1715 in his eighties.
John Pulteney (d.1726), politician. MP for Hastings, commissioner of customs, and member of the Board of Trade from 1706 until 1710.
Sir Charles Turner (1666-1738), politician. Teller of the Exchequer, and Member of the Board of Trade from 1708 to 1712.
Burdett-Coutts, Angela Georgina (1814–1906), philanthropist. Autograph letter signed to Mr. Dalton, 3 sides, 16mo, Stratton St., May 22 1871. Regarding the Queen's intention to confer a peerage upon her : "I was very sensible of your sincere but friendly feelings on hearing the Queen’s intention to confer a Peerage and I know the testimonial thus written [?] will link my title with the heredity [?] endorsed to me by long association & the ever ready and comforting kindness of my neighbours amongst whom I hope very shortly to find myself "
A close friend of Dickens and Wellington, Angela Burdett-Coutts spent much of her life distributing her fortune to good causes and projects, in which she maintained a deep interest. The good work that she achieved as a philanthropist was acknowledged when, on 19 June 1871, she became the first woman to be raised to the peerage in her own right since Anne Boleyn, becoming Baroness Burdett-Coutts of Highgate and Brookfield, Middlesex.
Burke, John (1786–1848), author and genealogist. Autograph letter, signature cut out, to Sir Samuel Edgerton-Brydges at Geneva. 4 sides, 4to, with integral franked address panel, New Burlington St, 8th March 1830. Regarding genealogy, and news of state and literary matters. "I am proceeding with the Extinct Peerage and hope to have it ready for the press within a few months ...... In reference to the last edition of my Peerage and Baronetage, I must throw myself entirely upon your mercy, for I am quite aware that it falls infinitely short of my sting like perfection ...... I shall feel myself much benefited by your judicious suggestions, and I beg that your observations may be free, for I have none of the irritability of authorship about me, and I court criticism because I am anxious to profit by it ...... In Ireland Lord George Beresford has just been returned for the County of Waterford upon the Catholic interest, in opposition to a Catholic candidate ....... Moore’s Byron is the only work of consequence which has appeared ........ The genius of a lyric poet is seldom of that nervous character required to develop the deeds of a great mind or of a great nation: and Moore’s Sheridan too clearly evinced how little he was qualified for this species of writing." The cut signature affects 3 lines of text on the reverse side, and a small piece of paper has been detached by the broken seal.
Burke is noted for his "General and Heraldic Dictionary of the Peerage and
Baronetage of the United Kingdom" first published in 1826, and a series of other
classic works, many prepared with his son. In the letter he refers to the 3rd
edition of 1830, and to his forthcoming "General and Heraldic Dictionary of the
Peerages of England, Ireland and Scotland, Extinct, Dormant and in Abeyance",
which was published in 1831. His correspondent Sir Samuel Edgerton-Brydges (1762-1837),
was an author, literary editor and genealogist, who from 1818 resided on the
European mainland. Something of an eccentric, he was known to Jane Austen, whose
brother James had courted Brydges' younger sister. Sir Samuel and Jane had
little respect for one another, and she said of one of his novels “Never did any
book carry more internal evidence of its author.”
ROBERT BURNS' SON
BURNS, Robert (1786-1857) son of the poet Robert Burns. Autograph letter signed, 2 York Road, Belfast, Ireland, September 13th 1845, to Miss Isabella Begg, Bridgehouse, Nr.Ayr, Scotland, 1 side of a 4to bifolium with integral address panel with imperforate Penny Red stamp and Belfast and Ayr frank marks, and the remains of a red wax seal. Burns writes advising Isabella that subject to the weather he intends to leave Belfast for Ardrossan on the morning of the 23rd “I wish you to enquire at the Terminus what hour the last train leaves Ardrossan and Kilwinning for Ayr ...….. should I get to Ayr that evening I shall expect to have the pleasure of your company at breakfast at Mr Johnston’s on the morning of the 24th ..…. Eliza and Patty are well and send you their love. My love to my Aunt, to Agnes and yourself”.
Robert Burns was born at Mossgiel, Mauchline, Ayrshire, Scotland in 1786, the eldest son of the poet Robert Burns (1759–1796) and Jean Armour (1765-1834) (who formally married in 1788). Robert was educated at Dumfries Grammar School, and attended sessions in Edinburgh and Glasgow universities. He married Anne Sherwood (d 1835) in London in1809, by whom he had one daughter Eliza (referred to in the letter). Robert obtained a position in the Stamp Office in London (offered to him by the Prime Minister) from which he retired in 1833 with a small pension, and moved to Dumfries where he augmented his income by teaching classics and mathematics.
Robert’s correspondent was his cousin Miss Isabella Begg (1807-1886), who lived with her mother Isabella Begg (the youngest sister of the poet Robert Burnes) at Bridgehouse, Ayr, and is referred to in the letter as “my Aunt”. He also refers to Agnes, who is Isabella’s sister Agnes Brown Begg (1800-1883), also living at Bridgehouse.
RELATIONS OF SIR RICHARD BURTON
BURTON, Catherine née BAXTER (c1725-1782). Autograph letter signed to her brother Robert Baxter Esq, Furnival’s Inn, London, 4to, 2 sides (portion of blank second leaf missing) with seal and Bishop marks, Tuam [Co. Galway] August 16 1776, admonishing her brother for not having heard from him or her nephew "we have never had a letter from any of you or the Family at Atherstone a long time. Mr Burton & I are very uneasy & take it very ill, it is 8 or 9 months since we had the favour of a letter from any of our Relations. Sure you have forgot we are in the land of the living. I sopose you thought we was numberd with the Dead & their was an end of us". On local matters she reports that "the Arch Bishop has been hear 5 weeks he has shone us every civility in his power & has given us the most affect & Frendly invitation to stay in his palace till our new House is Dry & fit for me to live in ...... Dean Ryder is to be in Ireland before the 29 of September Captain Dobs being chose the chief magistrate at Carrackfergus ...." and says that "Mr. Burton will be vastly obliged to you to order 3 Hogsheads of porter for him this is the time of the year for the vessels to come from London to Galway".
Catherine Baxter of Atherstone, Warwickshire married in 1763 Edmund Burton (1737-1817), curate of Toddingham, Bedfordshire. In the late 1760s Catherine, Edmund and his brother Edward moved to the west of Ireland, where Edmund was made curate of Kiltullagh Parish, which was in the patronage of Catherine's uncle John Ryder (of Nuneaton, Warwickshire), the archbishop of Tuam, Co Galway. In 1771 Edmund became archdeacon of St Mary's Cathedral, Tuam, a position he held until 1805. John Ryder died in 1775, and the archbishop was replaced by Dr Browne. The Burtons remained residents in the archbishop's Palace until their new house was completed in 1782. Catherin'e brother-in-law Edward Burton became vicar of Annaghdown, and it was his son Joseph Netterville Burton who was the father of the explorer Sir Richard Burton - past historians incorrectly cited Edmund as Sir Richard Burton's grandfather (in fact his great-uncle).
Caledon, Du Pre Alexander, second earl of (1777–1839), politician and colonial administrator. Autograph letter (third person) signed to Mr.Harrison, 2 sides, 8vo, St. James’ Square, 21st February 1823. Returning papers on the state of slavery at the Cape of Good Hope. "He is not aware of being able to offer the Committee any information of assistance but he can not avoid feeling some distrust of Mr. Parker as he knows that there is a strong impression on his part that he has been ill used by the individual to whom he alludes and this has evidently had its influence in the representation that has been made." Second page has an old glue line, indicating removal from an album.
Caledon obtained a seat in the House of Lords in 1804 as one of the twenty-eight Irish representative peers. He was successful in 1806 in his application to the Prime Minister in obtaining the post of Governor of Cape Colony, which he occupied until 1811, and where he introduced controversial measures in attempts to pacify relations between colonists and native black Africans. He afterwards returned to his seat in Westminster. Despite the Slave Trade Act of 1807, slaves continued to be held, although were not sold within the British Empire. The abolitionist movement became active again in the 1820s, leading to the foundation of the Anti-Slavery Society in 1827, and the Slavery Abolition Act of 1833, outlawing all slavery in the British Colonies.
CAMPBELL, Hugh Hume, third earl of Marchmont (1708–1794), politician. Autograph letter signed 'Marchmont' to an unnamed correspondent, 1 side 4to, London 24 Decr 1777, explaining that a sever illness has kept him in London all summer, "I have heard nothing from Mr. Cockburn concerning your pedigree .............. Sir Geo. Home is a Leiutenant in a man of war in America. Others may entertain jealousies, but Mr. Cockburn ought to inform you how things stand. I believe whatever pedigree may be made nothing lucrative can follow after so long a time in neglect". Light browning to areas of text, and the reverse with old mounting marks.
Marchmont was one of the leading agricultural improvers of his time, who devoted considerable energies in developing his Berwickshire estates. He was widely read, an expert on horsemanship, and was an intimate of Alexander Pope and Sarah, duchess of Marlborough (ODNB).
Capell, Arthur, 6th earl of Essex (1803-1892). Autograph letter signed [to Rev.G.Fyler Townsend], 6 sides, on 16mo and 8vo sheets, 23 Chesham Place, March 1st 1874. Commenting upon a proof copy of "The siege of Colchester" sent to him, "I do not think I have any documents relating to Lord Capell which could be of much value to you ....... What you state relating to the carrying away from Lord Hadham Lord Capell’s son and offering him him in exchange for a Parliamentary Prisoner, recalls to mind an anecdote I read years ago when I was a boy to the effect that Ireton had caused the boy to be placed in his lines at the time of a heavy cannonade in Colchester sending a message to Lord Capell to warn him that if he continued the cannonade he would endanger the life of his son. Lord C’s reply was “that much as he owed to his son he owed more to his King and Country”..... It made a very deep impression on my mind having as a boy been always taught to admire him".
The author of "The Siege of Colchester, or, an event of the Civil War , AD 1648" was the Rev. G. Fyler Townsend, whose book was published by SPCK in 1874. The 6th earl's ancestor, Arthur Capel, first Baron Capel of Hadham (1604–1649), was a royalist army officer and politician, who resisted the parliamentarian army in the siege of Colchester in 1648, but was finally captured and beheaded in 1649.
Channing, William Ellery. (1780-1842) American Unitarian theologian. Autograph letter signed to The Reverend Dr. Inckerman, Boston, 2 sides with integral address panel, 4to, Newport, September 1st 1836. Regarding the publication of his sermon : "I received from Dickinson the publisher of my sermon, a copy of which there were two or three errata. I should be glad that the copies to be sent abroad may be corrected in these particulars, as an addition may be published from some of them. Can you see this done – I gave Miss Peabody a list of foreign friends to whom copies were to be sent, which is in Dickinson’s hands - can your brother Gustavas see to the sending of the packet". Paper rather soiled on edges.
Channing was born in Newport, Rhode Island, graduated from Harvard in 1798, and became pastor of the Federal Street Congregational Church in Boston 1803. He was the foremost Unitarian preacher in the United States in the early 19th century. Channing's writings were widely influential, and covered important social topics including slavery, war, labour problems, and education.
THIRD FRENCH WAR OF RELIGION 1568-1570
CHARLES IX , King of France, (1550-1574). Manuscript document in French, signed Charles as King of France and dated 31 January 1570, on parchment, measuring 420 x 295 mm with cut out section to lower right, commanding that his officials arrange for Master Berard Treasurer General of Munitions to pay back ‘expenses generated in the province and division of Brittany, and brought to the city of Nantes, The sum of two thousand, eight hundred, thirty-two pounds, seventeen shillings’ which were intended for ‘20 sacks of Linen and construction of twenty boats to defend bridges, which we have ordered to be made in the city of Nantes; The which We have subsequently revoked, and Remit the whole to another time more convenient for our affairs ……… the decree itself of our friends & also faithful counsellors, The lords de Boisregnault, Treasurer of France and General of our finances in the country, and dela Fontaine, Master Franceois Gaudart, Master Ordinary in our Chamber of Accounts at Paris ……… Given at Angers on the last day of January, one thousand, 500, seventy, and of our Reign the tenth’. With references also to Vital de Contour and Myron who were receivers general. Right half with some staining, and right margin slightly clipped. At the foot of the document are the former ownership signatures of the antiquary and autograph collector William Upcott (1779–1845), and of John Temple Feby 1818. The document comes with a full English translation. PHOTO
The French Wars of Religion took place between 1562 and 1598 involving French Catholics and Protestants (Huguenots), which were exacerbated by factional disputes between the aristocratic houses of France, and led to foreign interests being involved. In the third war of 1568 to 1570, the Huguenots suffered a setback at the Battle of Jarnac (1569), where their general, the prince de Condé, was killed; and following the appointment of Henry of Navarre (later Henri IV) as new leader of the Huguenot cause, a peace treaty (of Saint-Germain-en-Laye) was signed on 5 August 1570 by King Charles IX for the Catholics, and by Admiral Gaspard de Coligny for the Huguenots, granting the Huguenots control of four fortified towns. Furthermore Protestants were allowed to hold public office in France, and Catherine de' Medici, mother of Charles IX, promised to give her daughter Marguerite de Valois in marriage with Henry of Navarre. This peace was shattered in 1572 by the St. Bartholomew's Day massacre, leading to the resumption of hostilities.
The Peace of Saint-Germain-en-Laye was partly driven by the massive royal debt incurred by Charles IX during hostilities. In Nantes, to which this document relates, the king had ordered in 1568 its defences to be strengthened and a new fortification to be built, but the municipality initially dragged its feet, until threats of a siege encouraged inhabitants to follow orders to assist in work rotas. To pay for this ongoing work the king had to tax the inhabitants, and this document touches upon an interesting variation in the deployment of some of the considerable monies raised locally just 6 months before the Peace of Saint-Germain-en-Laye was signed.
CLARKE, Edward Daniel (1769–1822), antiquary and mineralogist. Three autograph letters from Edward Daniel Clarke, plus a note, to Clarke’s publishers Cadell & Davies as follows:
1. Edward Daniel Clarke, autograph letter signed addressed “Gentlemen”, one side, 4to, Cambridge, April 21st 1816, saying that he had “mentioned to Mr Watts that we have never received Mrs Clarke’s copy of the last Volume of my Travels: the only one to which I am intitled; but having no news of it, I have thought it best to write to you.” He adds that he has “two small Paper copies, which Mr Mathew[?] sent previously to publication, and which belong to you”. Paper edges browned and partly frayed, with a stab hole to centre.
2. Edward Daniel Clarke, autograph letter signed to an unnamed correspondent, 2 sides, 4to, Cambridge, January 22nd 1821, bearing instructions “to forward the copies which accompany this, of my “Address” etc, to the following Persons. One to each”, in which he lists the King “to be delivered at Carlton Palace, to my brother the Librarian to his Majesty”; the Archbishop of Canterbury; Lord Liverpool; the Lord Chancellor; Lord Palmerston and Mr Smyth, Member for the University. He adds “What has become of Mr Watts? No Proof has been sent for a long time.” Top of page slightly cut down, with circular stain, paper edges browned and partly frayed, with a stab hole to centre.
3. Edward Daniel Clarke, autograph letter in third person, no date, asking Mr Cadell & Davies to send “to the Revd Mr Kaye[?] at his son’s a Grocer in Ralph[?] St Covent Garden the Copy of the last Vol. of the Travels which Dr Clarke intended for his brother.” Stab hole to centre.
4. Wm.[?] Clarke, autograph note signed to Messrs Cadell & Davies, N.Bond St, January 25th [no year] requesting delivery of “one copy small paper of Clarke’s Travels vol. 4”. Stab hole to centre. [Possibly the New Bond Street bookseller William Clarke d 1820].
Click here to see PHOTO
Upon graduating MA from Cambridge in 1794 Edward Daniel Clarke travelled widely in Europe, Russia and the Near East where he engaged in collecting minerals, antiquities and coins. He was appointed as the first professor of mineralogy at Cambridge in 1809, and he spent much time in his remaining years working with his collections and upon his Travels, published by Cadell & Davies in 6 volumes between 1810 and 1823.
A prolific author, he also published various other books and pamphlets, and some twenty-eight papers in learned journals, dealing with antiquities, chemistry and mineralogy. Clarke was a co-founder of the Cambridge Philosophical Society (founded 1819), and was invited by its Council to write an Address to be read at its first meeting, which was published and circulated with the first volume of its Transactions. This publication and instructions for its circulation are the subject of the letter (item 2) above.
COWPER, Ashley (1701–1788), Clerk of the Parliaments. Autograph document signed, 24th February 1779, folio bifolium (docketed on the reverse), “Ordered that the Lords Spiritual and Temporal in Parliament assembled, that John Ibbetson Esquire do attend this House on Friday next in Order to his being Examined as a Witness in relation to the Case of Greenwich Hospital”. Some discolouration to upper edges. PHOTO
Ashley Cowper was the uncle of the famous poet and letter-writer William Cowper (1731–1800). He obtained the lucrative post of Clerk of the Parliaments in 1740 following his father William Cowper, and remained in office until his death in 1788.
The occasion of this Order summoning Ibbotson to give evidence was a parliamentary enquiry following the publication in March 1778 by Thomas Baillie, Lieutenant-Governor of the Greenwich Hospital, entitled The Case of the Royal Hospital for Seamen at Greenwich, in which he sought to expose ‘the several abuses that have been introduced into that great national establishment’. The catalogue of charges led to Baillie’s dismissal, and a libel action was brought against him in November 1778. Defended by Thomas Erskine (later lord chancellor), Baillie won the case, but he was not reinstated, and a motion in the House of Lords to set up an inquiry into the management of Greenwich Hospital was defeated. John Ibbetson, Clerk of the Admiralty and Secretary to Greenwich Hospital, gave extensive evidence during proceedings in February and March 1779, much of which can be read on-line in The Parliamentary Register.
An oil painting of ‘Ashley Cowper with his Wife and Daughter’ painted by William Hogarth in 1731 is in the Tate collection, London.
THE STANHOPE/SUNDERLAND MINISTRY 1717
CRAGGS, James, the younger (1686–1721), diplomatist and politician. Autograph letter signed to an unnamed correspondent, 2 sides, small 4to, Thursday April 11th 1717, regarding a position as Commissioner in the Treasury: "The very extraordinary manner in wch so many of ye King’s servants have abandoned his service make it necessary for him to employ men of ye best characters & principles he can meet wth. As he can never choose better than in pitching upon you & yt he intends to put Mr Stanhope at ye head of ye Treasury, I am commissioned to offer you a place in ye new patent". He expresses the hope that "ye distress of affairs from ye divisions among us will rather incite than discourage you from entering into ye M’s service, since no necessity can make him think of changing those measures wch have hitherto been agreeable to ye Whigs" and begs his correspondent "to look on this as a private letter as a mark of my real value for you & yt you would show it to nobody." Neat paper repairs to vertical creases on reverse.
James Craggs the younger was the son of the politician and government official James Craggs (bap. 1657, d. 1721). In 1713 he became member of parliament for Tregony, and on 15th April 1717 Secretary of State at War (2 days after this letter was written). The letter is associated with critical changes in the ministry which George I found necessary having a cabinet deeply divided on foreign policy, with Robert Walpole (1676–1745) and Lord Townsend (1674–1738) on one side, and James Stanhope (1673–1721) and Lord Sunderland (1675–1722) on the other. Townshend occupied the post of Northern Secretary, but was forced at the end of 1716 to give this up for the lesser appointment of Lord Lieutenant of Ireland. Townshend was dismissed from the latter post on 9th April 1717 upon voting against the Mutiny Bill, following which Robert Walpole resigned as First Lord of the Treasury and Chancellor of the Exchequer on 10th April 1717. This led to the formation of a new cabinet created on 15th April 1717, dominated by Stanhope who replaced Walpole, and Sunderland who succeeded Townshend as secretary of state for the north. The present letter sought to fill a Treasury Commissioner post under Stanhope, of which the new appointees were the politicians John Wallop (1690–1762), George Baillie, George (1664–1738), and Thomas Micklethwaite (1678-1718), one of whom is likely to be Craggs' correspondent. (see ODNB)
CUST & TOWER families. A quarto blind tooled morocco bound album entitled ‘BOOK OF FAMILY AUTOGRAPHS Collected by Sophia Frances Tower’, the paper watermarked 1840, containing 241 pasted in fragments of letters and ‘Free Fronts’ with signatures of members of the family of Sophia Frances Tower (nee Cust), each with manuscript entries in her hand recording the names and titles of family members, their dates of birth, death, and other details, set out in alphabetical order. The family names of Cust and Tower predominate, with other close relatives notably Brownlow, Bridgewater, Egerton, Hume and de Salis families having numerous entries. From the back of the book in reverse are, in a similar format, ‘AUTOGRAPHS OF FRIENDS’ comprising of 32 entries, including notably, Augustus Smith of Tresco Abbey, and the Rev Samuel Wilberforce, Bishop of Oxford & Winchester. The album includes two small engravings, one of ‘Bolton House, the Seat of Lord Brownlow’, and one of ‘Brayfield House, the Seat of W.C Farrer Esq’. In a number of places the pages have cut out holes where it is likely that letter seals were once glued in, which have subsequently been removed. Portraits of Christopher and Sophia Tower can be found in the collections of the National Trust. The volume forms a most useful record of the well connected families of Cust and Tower. PHOTO
Sophia Frances Cust was born on 14 April 1811, the daughter of John Cust, 1st Earl Brownlow and Sophia Hume, daughter of Sir Abraham Hume (1749–1838) and Amelia Egerton. Sophia married (Sir) Christopher Theron Tower in 1836, by whom she had three daughters and one son, and they lived at Huntsmoor Park, Buckinghamshire. Lady Sophia Tower as she became, had a close relationship with Augustus John Smith (1804 –1872) of Tresco Abbey, and governor of the Isles of Scilly. A frequent visitor to Tresco, Sophia published Sketches in the Isles of Scilly London : Dickinson & Co., [c1849]. Immediately after Smith’s death was published In Memoriam. Scilly and Its Emperor: Extracts of Letters from Augustus Smith, Esq., to S. F. T., 1845 to 1872, Speeches, Etc, Uxbridge 1873.
DENMAN, Thomas, first Baron Denman (1779–1854), lawyer, judge and politician. Autograph letter in third person to Mr [Edmund] Lodge, no place, no date [1832-39], 8vo, 4 sides of a bifolium, apologising for not having answered his letter earlier regarding the pedigree and arms of the Denman family which “is to be found in Thornton’s History of Notts - one branch of which (connecting them with high personages) was lost in females about the middle of the 17th century .” He writes that he believes that he probably descends “from some other branch, though the descent cannot be traced, for his grandfather came from that county & neighbourhood (near Retford) & settled as an apothecary at Bakewell in Derbyshire, & was the father of Joseph, MD, who practiced at Buxton ….. died JP in his 83rd yr in 1812, & of Thos. MD, many years well known in London, the C[hief] J[ustice]’s father. He married Elizth Brodie (sister of the Rev Peter Bellinger Brodie, whose 3rd son, the eminent surgeon has just been made a Bart., had 2 daughters (twins, Margaret, married to Sir Rd Croft, Bart. & Sophia, married to Matthew Baillie MD) & one son, the C.J. born Feb 23, 1779. Dr Thomas D died in his 83rd year 25 Nov 1815.”
Thomas Denman was born on 23 February 1779 in London, the only son and youngest of the three children of Thomas Denman (1733–1815), a distinguished physician whose textbook on midwifery was an eighteenth-century best-seller, and his wife, Elizabeth (1747–1833), daughter of Alexander Brodie, an army accoutrement maker (ODNB). Denman was a distinguished barrister; was MP for Wareham and Nottingham; was made Common Serjeant of London in 1822; became Attorney General in 1830; and was made Lord Chief Justice of England of the King’s Bench in 1832. In 1834 he was raised to the peerage as Baron Denman, of Dovedale in the County of Derby.
Edmund Lodge (1756–1839) was a herald and biographer. He obtained in 1782 the post of Bluemantle pursuivant-at-arms in the College of Arms, and was to spend the rest of his career as a herald and a genealogist. He rose through the ranks of the College of Arms, becoming Lancaster herald in 1793 and Norroy king of arms in 1822. His career as a herald was crowned when he was promoted to Clarenceux king of arms, the second in command at the College of Arms, in 1838. (ODNB).
LAST PERSON IMPEACHED IN THE UNITED KINGDOM
DUNDAS, Henry, first Viscount Melville (1742–1811), politician. Letter signed to Chas. W. Dilke, Navy Pay Office, 22nd May 1797, 3 sides folio, heavily criticizing Dilke for not attending properly to matters in the Pay Office "I find my Paymaster has written repeatedly to you respecting the delay in dispatching the Business sent to you from the Inspectors Branch of my Office. I beg to acquaint you that I have requested the Navy Board to write upon this subject to Commissioner Saxton and to recommend that no Claim shall be solved at any time or paid to any Agent until all Claims are finished which you may then have in your hands from the Inspectors Branch ............... I now inform you of the necessity of exerting your Authority over the junior Clerks whom you shall appoint to make out the Remittance Bills, as I shall not admit any excuse whatever on your part - you may remove any of them from their Situation if you find it necessary ................... I shall hold you responsible to me for the due execution of this particular Business and will not allow the necessity of retaining you in your present Situation if the Claims from the Inspectors Branch shall not be duly cleared off and dispatched previous to any payment being made to any Agent or Officers or others......". Docketed on the reverse. Top (blank) areas of paper soiled with small tears.
Dundas served as treasurer of the Admiralty between 1782-1800, and was also Secretary of State for War. The Paymaster referred to was Alexander Trotter, who Dundas had appointed in 1785, and the recipient of this letter was Charles Wentworth Dilke (1742/3–1826) a chief clerk in the paymaster branch of the Admiralty (and a literary critic).
In 1802 a commission of inquiry into the Navy's finances was appointed, following which suspicion arose as to the financial management of the Admiralty during Dundas's term as treasurer. The commission reported its findings in 1805, resulting in 1806 in the impeachment of Dundas, now Viscount Melville, for the misappropriation of public money. It found out in particular that Melville had not, as required, kept at the Bank of England official disbursements allocated to him though not yet spent. Since he refused to co-operate in showing where else they had gone, the focus of the investigation switched to his subordinate, Alexander Trotter, paymaster of the navy. Trotter eventually admitted to having drawn money from the bank and laid it out in investments of his own, a practice by no means uncommon among public servants at the time, if in this case expressly prohibited by law. Though it ended in an acquittal for Melville, and nothing more than formal negligence lay against him, he never again held office. This was the last impeachment trial ever held in the House of Lords. (ODNB)
Eardley [formerly Smith], Sir Culling, third baronet (1805–1863), religious campaigner. Autograph letter signed to Rev W. Bevan", 4 sides, 4to, including integral address panel, on a sheet of paper part printed, entitled "Opinions of Public Men on National Support to Roman Catholic Schools" (with 5 quoted paragraphs in small print), Aix-les-Bains, France, August 16th 1847. Letting Bevan know about his movements, and discussing church affairs on the Continent and in Britain. "You have my warmest and most affectionate wishes for your success in your new post. I think I don’t exaggerate when I say that there is none in Europe more likely to be influential in the destinies of the Church. With His divine blessings and wise councils I believe you may be the means of reforming Christendom. One great thing needed is that the the Continent should be helped to help itself." Integral address panel with interesting postal marks. Strip of old gummed paper on reverse edge, indicating removal from an album.
After a short period in politics, Eardley found his calling as a lay leader of interdenominational and international evangelicalism. His conviction that all true Christians should be united led him in 1845–6 to be a prime mover in the foundation of the Evangelical Alliance, becoming chairman of its council.
ELDON, John Scott, second earl (1805-1854) grandson of Lord Chancellor Eldon (1751–1838). Autograph letter signed to Dr.Bliss, Oxford, 4to, 3 sides plus address panel (with interesting postal marks) and seal, Shirley, Croydon, March 18th 1839. Seeking Dr Bliss's advice on the office of "High Steward" conferred to his grandfather by Oxford University, for his monument and publication of his life. "I am not a little surprised to find that the Office commonly called that of “High Steward” of the University of Oxford is strictly “Steward” .......... I trouble you with these observations to enquire whether the name of the office has been altered in there modern days .......... Had Lord Eldon .. the right of voting as a Doctor (I know he was a Master also), & is this what is called a Degree by diploma or not". Small piece of paper cut from edge to open seal, and remains of paper adhering to back edge indicating removal from an album page. PHOTO
The monument of Lord Chancellor Eldon which his grandson refers to was designed by Sir Francis Chantrey and erected in 1839 at Kingston Chapel, Corfe Castle, Dorset. Dr Philip Bliss (1787–1857), antiquary and book collector, was registrar of Oxford university, and keeper of the archives, "a post in which his penchant for accumulation seems to have impeded administrative efficiency" (ODNB).
ELLENBOROUGH, Edward Law, first earl of (1790–1871), politician and governor-general of India. Autograph letter signed, to Major General Sir Philip M. Melville, 2 sides, 8vo, Southam Delabere, Cheltenham, January 4th 1866. Thanking him for his "Memorials from the Officers of the Indian Army", adding "There is another subject which ought to occupy the -?- attention of the Govr. that of facilitating and inducing the transfer of officers from the Queen’s to the Indian Service this a matter of vital importance." Narrow strip of paper adhering to reverse edge indicating removal from an album page
Prior to the Indian Mutiny of 1857, Ellenborough had urged Canning not to reduce the strength of European troops in India, which were being reduced to support the Crimea campaign. He sacrificed his own post in government in urging restraint after the Mutiny, but it paid off in the passing of a royal proclamation of November 1858, with its offer of a wide-ranging amnesty and promises to respect the rights and beliefs of Indians.
ELPHINSTONE [née Thrale], Hester Maria, Viscountess Keith (1764–1857), protégée of Samuel Johnson. Autograph letter in third person to Mr. Harrison, Harley St, June 6 [no year], 1 side with integral blank sheet (with black mourning edge), requesting that “he will accept her best thanks for his very kind Present of an old Book which formerly belonged to her certainly but to which she could have no Claim”. Reverse of last blank leaf with adhering paper from an album.
Dr Johnson, a friend of the family from 1765, called Hester ‘Queeney’, wrote childish rhymes for her, played horses with her, wrote to her, and directed her education. Fanny Burney described her as ‘cold and reserved, though full of knowledge and intelligence’. Determined to marry a lord, Hester Thrale declined a proposal of marriage from the poet Samuel Rogers, and on 10 January 1808, in London, she married Admiral George Keith Elphinstone, Baron Keith (1746–1823), who had then been a widower some years. They acquired the Harley Street, London, address in December 1809. ODNB
QUACK & MADHOUSE PROPRIETOR IN REIGN OF QUEEN ANNE
FALLOWES, Thomas (fl 1700-1714) quack and madhouse proprietor. Autograph letter signed from Thomas Fallowes to his uncle Benja[min] Trigg, ‘at Mr John Hardings at his house called Needles at Horsham Townes end Sussex’, Lambeth Marsh 9th July 1706, 1 side folio (12 inches high) bifolium with (soiled) address panel bearing a Dockwra post mark. A few small holes to paper cross-folds, and a piece of paper torn from integral blank opposite the seal. In reply to a letter from his uncle Fallowes writes a defensive diatribe in relation to his actions “How many miles have I rode, and what expense have I been at, to serve a people so base in principle, without faith, or good works, whose Religeon is only Smoking, and Sleeping and then Rising, to see how they can redicule even their best friends ………….. as for my part, I have no Sinister end, nor design but purely to Serve my friends, and Relations, howsoever to be thus treated, is the highest piece of ingratitude, now what charge I have put your Relations to, I cannot tell, but it hath cost me Six pence, to their Two pence, and I am no way Interessed in the affair, and you all know better, than to murmur, for you to charge the best of Lawyers with ill management, I think not prudent; for in short he is a friend to all, and an Enemy to none, however he will answer for himself”. The exact matter in question is not clear, but he adds “I Pray call on Robert Parsons next week, and he will answer your Necessity. I was obliged to wait on the Queen that day, I should have mett you at Frunsum [Fensham, Surrey?]”. PHOTO
Thomas Fallowes, a self appointed ‘M.D’, was famously the proprietor of the private madhouse at Lambeth Marsh during the reign of Queen Anne. In 1705 he published The Best Method for the Cure of Lunaticks, with Some Account of the Incomparable Oleum Cephalicum Used in the Same, Prepared and Administered by Tho. Fallowes, at His House in Lambeth-Marsh. Fallowes professed to be an advocate of non-restraint, stating "all the gentleness and and kindness is absolutely necessary, even in all the cases I have seen ……. I have never us’d any violence to any patient”, and at the same time ‘cashed in’ by advocating his Oleum Cepalicum (‘at four Pound a quart’) which was applied to blisters raised on the scalp. Despite his advocacy of non-restraint Fallowes was the first mad-doctor to be convicted for illegal confinement. The following announcement was published in the London Gazette 24 January 1712:
Whereas it was advertised in the Gazette of the 23d of August last (and in several other Papers) that whoever should Apprehend Thomas Fallows, late of Lambeth Marsh in the County of Surry, with a Woman a Boy as therein described, so as to deliver them to John Plumeridge, Shipwright, or John. Alderman, at Queenhith, Cheesemonger, should have 10l, Reward, since which time the Woman and Boy being returned, the said John Alderman doth hereby advertise that he will not pay any Reward for Apprehending the said Fallows.
Fallowes’ uncle Benjamin Trigg may possibly be related to the infamous William Trigg (fl.1630-1656) and his son Stephen Trigg (fl. 1660-1690), both of whom were unlicensed medical practitioners in London.
RARE INSIGHT INTO ANTIQUARIAN PUBLISHING HISTORY
FISHER, Thomas (1772–1836), artist and antiquary. Autograph letter signed to ‘My Dear Friend’ [John Gough Nichols], 4 sides of a bifolium, 8vo, Glos’ter Terrace., Nov 21 1835, informing him that “the most alarming symptoms in my sister’s illness are considerably abated” and reporting on antiquarian projects “I have been looking through my Stratford papers & found that I have a copy of the Charter of Henry 6th, & the inventory of the Gild property of that date, as well as the indenture about the coals ……these with Myngham the first Mayor of Rochester will nearly make you a number of the Collectanea; & if you think you should like to use them , let me know & I will bring them all to Parliament Street ……. While I was in Kent I made drawings of Sutton Castle, & of Motynden & brought with me an impression of the seal of the sub conservator …… these may be of use to you for the Magazine ….. I hope to get forward with the services & to give you Martins Colonies; Missions; & China & other Foreign Policies for next month ….” [plus reference to writing another article, not easily readable]. Couple of small losses to paper edges.
Fisher is best-known for drawings recording interior church monuments, while most of his literary work was published in the Gentleman's Magazine. His account of the Stratford guild appeared in the Gentleman's Magazine in 1835, and a reprint by John Gough Nichols of his Stratford illustrations with some additional plates was published the following year, after his death. He was a regular contributor until his death but many of his book reviews and memoirs were published anonymously and can only be identified from the publisher's files. He wrote several memoirs of Anglo-Indians and missionaries, and was said to have been a frequent contributor to the Asiatic Journal, and the European Magazine occasionally published items from him.
Fisher never married and lived for most of his life with his sister Jane in the Hoxton district of Shoreditch, London, from at least 1804 until about 1820, and then at 6 Gloucester Terrace. Fisher died at Stoke Newington, Middlesex. His extensive collection of drawings, prints, and books was sold by auction (at Southgates on 15 March and from 31 August, and by Evans from 30 May 1837) and dispersed. (ODNB)
Fisher’s correspondent was John Gough Nichols (1806–1873), a printer and antiquary, and a member of a family of printers and publishers known for their books on local history and antiquarian scholarship. Nichols was at this time a joint editor of the Gentleman's Magazine, and was founding editor of the Collectanea Topographica et Genealogica 1834–43 (the Collectanea are mentioned in the letter). He was himself a prolific author of antiquarian publications. (ODNB)
GREGORY, John (1724–1773), physician and writer. Autograph letter signed to “Sir William Forbes Baronet, to be left at Mr Harris House, Merchant in London” , 2 sides of a folded 4to sheet with integral address panel bearing a red wax (armorial) seal and two postal Bishop marks, Edin[burgh] October 15th 1768, expressing his surprise that Sir William had not received his previous letter “In it I mentioned Prints which I beg you will cause frame, as may at least as you think worth framing; as they are intended for my Drawing Room. I know your good Taste in Prints & therefore leave it to you to frame only such as you approve..…. I desired Mr Pringle & Com to apply to you for payment of a Pipe of Madeira …. I likewise mentioned in my letter I beg you will desire Kirkcleman to send down a Musick desk for a Harpsichord of his own Making …”.
John Gregory was the youngest
son of James Gregorie (1674–1733), professor of medicine at King's College,
Aberdeen, and his father's second wife Anna Chalmers (d. 1770). He
studied medicine at Edinburgh university, and at Leiden, and received the degree
of MD from King's College, Aberdeen, where he became professor of philosophy.
Gregory began to practice medicine in Aberdeen, and in 1752 married Elizabeth (c.1728–1761),
the younger daughter of William Forbes, thirteenth Lord Forbes (d. 1730).
He moved to London in 1754 (changing the spelling of his name from Gregorie to
Gregory), and in 1755 was elected a fellow of the Royal Society.
After the death of his wife in1761, Gregory wrote A Father's Legacy to his Daughters to relieve his loneliness and to record her opinions about the education of their two surviving daughters (published by his son James in 1774). In 1764 Gregory took his children to Edinburgh, where his practice grew quickly, and he became a celebrity on the publication of A Comparative View. In 1766 Gregory was elected professor of physic at Edinburgh University, and was appointed first physician in Scotland to George III. Between 1767 and 1769 he lectured on the practice of medicine, and in 1769 permission was granted for William Cullen and Gregory to give alternate courses on the practice and theory, an unprecedented arrangement which continued until Gregory's death. He began lecturing on medical ethics in 1767, and when he heard that a copy of his lectures had been offered to a bookseller, he published a corrected version, entitled Observations on the Duties and Offices of a Physician and on the Method of Prosecuting Enquiries in Philosophy (1770), since hailed as the first philosophical, secular medical ethics in the English language (ODNB)
Gregory’s correspondent was the
banker and benefactor Sir William Forbes of Pitsligo, sixth baronet
(1739–1806), a distant relation of Gregory’s
father-in-law William Forbes, thirteenth Lord Forbes. Sir William was a
close friend of the poet and philosopher James Beattie, and of James Boswell,
and had a special interest in music and art which are evidently a common
link of interest in this letter. The reference to the services of a harpsichord
maker (Kirkcleman) is likely to be the famous Kirkman family of
London harpsichord makers, whose name has several variant spellings.
Godolphin, Francis, second earl of Godolphin (1678–1766), politician and officer of the royal household. Autograph letter signed to an unnamed correspondent, 2 sides, 4to, Baylies near Windsor, June 17th 1756. Commenting upon the opera in London and social matters. "..... you may have heard of her formerly as daughter of Ld Bingley and wife to Mr. George Fox who has changed his name to Lane, she is a great patroness of Signor de Giardini and has procured him the large Opera House in the Hay Market, in the room of Signor Vanneschi who proposes having an opera in some other place, and they are both endeavouring to get as many subscriptions as they can in hopes of ruining each other......... Ld. Berkeley is very well and enjoying his summer retreat in his own Square in London ".
Harriet Benson, daughter of Robert Benson, Baron Bingley & Lady Elizabeth
Finch, married George Fox-Lane, bringing him estates worth £100,000.
Gordon [née Brodie], Elizabeth, duchess of Gordon (1794–1864), evangelical patron. Autograph letter signed to an unnamed correspondent, on black edged paper, 3 sides, 8vo, Huntly Lodge, November 19th 1849. Regarding church matters, and her inability to visit Edinburgh schools because of illness. "I have written to the Duke of Hamilton & Ld. Breadalbane regarding Miss Johnstone’s appts. but as I have very little acquaintance with those Lords, or indeed with any persons in power now, I know not what influence my letters may have". With folds, and a thin stained edge on the reverse where removed from an album. Comes with an engraved portrait of the duchess. PHOTO
Elizabeth became duchess of Gordon in 1827, and was to devote herself to the furtherance
of evangelical Christianity, especially after her husband's death in 1836. Although an Episcopalian, she sympathized with the opponents of patronage, and
after considerable heart searching in 1846 she joined the Free Church of
Scotland, convinced that the established church had wrongly surrendered its
disciplinary powers to the state.
GOWER, Elizabeth Leveson- [née Lady Elizabeth Sutherland], duchess of Sutherland and suo jure countess of Sutherland (1765–1839), landowner. Autograph letter signed to “My Dear Lord” , 4 sides, small 8vo, Sunday morning, 1807, thanking her correspondent for sending some etchings which “are an encitement to me to continue a work which is at present a great amusement to me, in the hope of being able to make some return to you in kind, though the subjects of mine are of a very different nature, being portraits of places in Orkney & in the north of Scotland generally devoid of trees & which will besides the other disadvantages under which they suffer have the additional one, of being executed by a far less masterly hand. Indeed their only merit will be that of singularity, as the places they represent have hitherto been undescribed by any pencil whatever & can have no value except what curiosity may give to them from the remote situation & difficulty of approaching the scenes they attempt to represent”. Marks on rear edge indicating removal from an album, and a discrete repair to the folded paper.
Lady Sutherland accompanied her husband to Paris at the height of the French Revolution, where she wrote descriptions of the political turbulence, and sent clothing to the imprisoned Marie Antoinette, an act reputed to be the last gesture of kindness shown to the doomed queen. She became a leading hostess in London, where she gave sumptuous dinners attended by royalty, aristocrats, and statesmen from Britain and abroad. She owned huge estates in Scotland, and in actively supporting the new philosophy of modernization and improvement became the target of great hatred in the northern highlands. She endeavoured to counteract the adverse publicity surrounding the highland clearances, but with little success.
Lady Sutherland spent much of her time raising her
four children, sketching (she was a gifted watercolourist, and was especially
accomplished in her landscapes of the Sutherland coast and of Dunrobin Castle),
corresponding with Sir Walter Scott, and consuming snuff. ODNB
Greville [née Macartney], Frances (1727?–1789), poet. Autograph letter, missing last page, 4 sides, 4to, to "My Lord" [George Townsend, Viceroy of Ireland], Wilbury, August 26th 1771. A long (and in part, flirtaceous) letter touching upon friends, family and politics, etc "I received your letter with infinite pleasure but since I can't cure you of Philandering me I wish I could at least cure myself of the strong propensity I have to think you mean to laugh a little at your humble servant, my vanity would find it's account in such a want of modesty, for if flattery is palatable even from different persons how grateful must it be from those on whose opinion one sets a high value"............"As to what you ask concerning Lord S[uffolk ?]. I am told he makes only two Members and his secretary Mr. W. has a seat which he bought. I did hear, but with what truth I know not, that Lord N[orth]. seemed to incline most to that set of people that belonged to G. G. [George Grenville?] I do not believe that ever was a syllable of truth in any of the reports of this going out and this I am sure of from people very nearly connected with him; that he was remarkably satisfied his M's favour and protection even at a time when some who should have known much better looked upon him as on the eve of being dismissed" .......... "Everyone here is astonished at your success, and I think my Lord since you have so good a hand at these matters you had better come over to help us, but I don't believe you wish, therefore I shall, one of these days go and claim your promise of visiting the lake of Kilarney." ......... "Before I conclude I must remind you of the obligation you said you would confer on me in the person of my unfortunate cousin; when you can without inconvenience to your own plans grant him the little thing I requested you will make a brave and worthy man very happy". Despite the missing end of this letter, the opening of the last paragraph suggests that most of the matters are dealt with. Split along fold. PHOTO
Probably born in Ireland, the daughter of James Macartney (1692–1770), Irish MP, and Catherine Coote (d. 1731), Frances Macartney was beautiful, spirited, and celebrated for her clever verses. In 1747 she met the popular socialite and man of fashion Fulke Greville (1717–1806), of Wilbury in Wiltshire, who she eloped with and married. The writer Fanny Burney described her as ‘pedantic, sarcastic, and supercilious’, but to the few who possessed her favour, ‘she was a treasure of ideas and of variety’. Her husband gambled away his fortune, and following the death of their son Robert in 1768, he returned to England from his diplomatic post in Munich, in a state of collapse, and ruin ensued in 1782, when Wilbury was sold. Fances took refuge in Ireland, and by 1788 a legal separation was effected. ODNB
GREY, Charles (1804–1870), army officer and courtier. Autograph letter in third person, 1 side, 8vo,Windsor Castle, Oct 17th 1851, on black edged mourning paper, “Colonel Grey has received the Command of His Royal Highness Prince Albert to return the Collection of Ceylon precious stones sent for his inspection by Mr. Purdue, with the expression of His Royal Highness’ best thanks”.
Grey was an equerry to the queen from 1837 to 1867, and private secretary to Prince Albert from 1849 to 1861. After Albert's death he became private secretary to Queen Victoria (ODNB). This letter was written two days after the Great Exhibition closed to the public, a project masterminded by Prince Albert, and it quite possible that the gem collection referred to might have some connection through one of the exhibitors.
GREY, Sir George (1812–1898), colonial governor and premier of New Zealand. Autograph letter signed to the Rev.V.Hadley, 2 sides plus integral blank, 8vo, Oct 28th 1859, Howchin’s Hotel, 57 & 58. St. James’s Street, London, in response to his “letter of the 25th on behalf of the Cambridge Committee of the Oxford and Cambridge Mission to Central Africa, I will to the best of my ability second the motion a copy of which you have transmitted to me, at the meeting which is to be held at Cambridge upon Tuesday next”. Strip of adhering paper on rear edge indicating removal from an album.
In 1854 Grey became governor of Cape Colony and high commissioner for South Africa, but in 1859, when Grey promoted a South African federation, incorporating the Afrikaner republics of Orange Free State and the Transvaal, London had to sack him to get its way. A change of government led to his immediate reinstatement. On the voyage back from England to South Africa in 1860, his wife Eliza ‘formed a romantic attachment’ to the ship's commander, Admiral Sir Henry Keppel. Grey discovered it, threatened to ‘either commit suicide or murder his wife’ and had her put ashore at Rio de Janeiro. Grey swore Keppel to secrecy and did not speak to Eliza again for thirty-six years. He spent another year in South Africa, embittered and increasingly reserved, then volunteered to be posted to New Zealand, where war with the Taranaki Maori had broken out in 1860. ODNB
Grey, Henry George, third Earl Grey (1802–1894), politician. Autograph letter signed to George Eden, earl of Auckland, 3 sides, 8vo, Howich, September 25th, 1847. Enclosing letters from the Duke of Wellington (not present) regarding the defence of Alderney, and discussing the appointment of Knight Commanders of the Bath. "Sending 5000 men to Alderney is of course altogether out of the question, but I agree with the Duke that it is a point to be carefully looked to, and that our neighbours are not for a moment to be trusted - the defence of this port must I think be trusted for the present at least almost entirely to you." Damage to inner edge of second leaf around fold, from removal from an album.
In 1846, Grey was made colonial, and Auckland was appointed first lord of the Admiralty. The Alderney affair related to a Government initiative to fortify the Channel ports to create "harbours of refuge" to deter attacks from the French. In Alderney a massive defence programme started in 1846 and continued to 1870. The scale of the work brought considerable prosperity for the island.
HALLAM, Henry (1777–1859), historian. Autograph letter signed [to John Charles Herries] , 4 closely written sides of a 4to bifolium, Wimpole Street, London, 13 June 1827, regarding his letter of 9th September 1826 being laid before the House of Commons to clear his name following his removal from the Stamp Office in that year, “It is very satisfactory to myself, that, of late, this exculpation of my own conduct, as well as of the Stamp department in general should meet the eye of the public ……… the 13th & 14th reports of the commissioners are, in the far greater part, founded in prejudice & incorrect apprehension, & even when resting upon some basis of truth, very greatly exaggerated through the same causes; that the examinations of witnesses have been conducted partially, with a pre-determination (at least in appearance) to listen only to what might be unfavourable to the office ……… the board of stamps were put on their trial, in their absence, & with no knowledge or suspicion of the accusations; & that they were never permitted to exculpate themselves as a proof of which it may be mentioned, that I never examined but once, & that in the outset, before any of the criminating & disparaging evidence had been publicly given. It may be thought unusual to speak in such language, though much less strong than what I should use in private, of those who have filled so considerable a station; but I also have some name in the world, &, now that all official deference is at an end, I know not why I should wholly suppress the sentiments which I must naturally feel ……… I call the pretext of my dismissal slight, because the signature of the blank warrants, though an irregularity, was owing to peculiar circumstances not depending on those concerned in it, &, far more, because by no possibility could the revenue have been injured thereby to the value of a shilling. I have talked with many on this subject, & have found none who look on it in a heinous light. But I must add that I never felt for a moment the least disposition to complain of Lord Liverpool, who, from reading the 13th & 14th reports could not avoid regarding the late board of stamps in the most unfavourable point of view”. Docketed on the 4th side in the hand of John Charles Herries “13 June 1827 Mr Hallam. Subject of his removal from the Stamp Office & his letter on that subject”. Paper with multi-folds.
Henry Hallam began his career in the law, practicing as a barrister on the Oxford circuit, but in 1806 accepted, through the patronage of his whig friends, a sinecure as a commissioner in the Stamp Office which he occupied until 1826. Affairs regarding the management and efficiency of the stamp office became a matter of considerable concern in the mid 1820s, and an inquiry was set up by parliament to investigate the matter. In the 13th Report of the Commissioners of 1825 Hallam’s difficulties begin to surface: “[Mr Addington] does not think it likely that the business of the board can be conducted without embarrassment while Mr Sedgwick and Mr Hallam remain together at it; that it is the misfortune in this case, as it is in others, that neither party will make an effort at self command, which if made, might remove that difficulty which the board is under……… Mr Hallam states his opinion that “the present mode of conducting business is not at all correct, that it is done in a very dilatory manner, and that these delays cannot be attributed to a pressure of business …….. there is at present a considerable disagreement between Mr Sedgwick and himself which he conceives must obstruct the business and that in consequence of this disagreement letters do not always receive an answer and treasury letters are necessarily delayed”. By the middle of 1826 Hallam’s position became untenable and he was removed from his post as a Commissioner of stamps.
The present lengthy letter is evidently written to add weight and context to Hallam’s letter of 9th September 1826 submitted at the time of his dismissal which he says was “written in great haste, at your suggestion that no delay could be admitted by the board of Treasury”. His opportunity to clear his name in public is through the good offices of John Charles Herries (1778 -1855), Secretary to the Treasury, who intended to lay the issues before the House of Commons.
Hallam is best remembered for his considerable contributions to history in many classic published works, and he contributed widely in other spheres of Victorian intellectual and cultural life. His eldest son Arthur Henry Hallam (1811-1833) was a close friend of the poet Alfred Tennyson, who he met at Cambridge in 1828. Tennyson commemorated Arthur’s premature death in his famous poem In Memoriam A.H.H.
COMMENTARY UPON THE PORTRAITS OF DAVID MARTIN
HARDY, Dr Thomas (1748-1798), divine. Autograph letter signed to his uncle (named Craig), 4 sides, 4to, Navity [Fifeshire], 10 May 1780, enquiring after a letter he has not yet received from his correspondent, followed by a chatty letter, opening upon the subject of art and a visit with Mr Young “to Martin’s Exhibition of Portraits. They are all excellent, but Dr Henry’s is ravishing, it is universally agreed to be liker the Original than he is to himself. Dr Webster’s full length is the most finished piece. I mentioned to a friend of yours lately that I should like to have her portrait but she said that she would give me the Original and desired me to be satisfied wit it. I bowed assent amd could not but own the inferiority of Mr Martin’s performance to the most finished piece of the Works of God ……… I will maintain in spite of all the world that Canvass is not comparable to linen for drawing portraits”. The remaining three sides concern matters in the Church; social matters; political arrangements in the Burghs and news of other friends. The letter has multi-folds, some small tears to the fold edges, and a bit of soiling to the edge of the last page.
Thomas Hardy was the son of Henry Hardy (1716-1752), minister of Culross, and Anne Halkerston (1719-1805), who had settled in a small estate of Navity in Ballingry parish, Fifeshire in 1750. Thomas Hardy was minister at Ballingry (1772-1783), before moving onward to Edinburgh as minister and Professor of Divinity and Ecclesiastical History in the University of Edinburgh. He was instrumental in forming the Society for the Benefit of the Sons of the Clergy, was a leader in the General Assembly and was the author of a number of religious works.
The artist referred to in the letter
is the portrait painter David Martin (1737–1797), born in Anstruther
Easter, Fife, who became a pupil of the portrait painter Allan Ramsay. Martin
produced more than 300 portraits, including the famous painting of Benjamin
Franklin (which hangs in the White House, Washington) and his most influential
works depict members of the Scottish Enlightenment. He portrayed his sitters
with integrity in an honest natural style, thereby consolidating a recognizably
Scottish tradition of portraiture. (ODNB)
SOUTH SEA HOUSE
HARVEY of ROLLS PARK, CHIGWELL. Autograph letter signed by Eliab Harvey to his mother [Mary], 4 sides, 4to, London January 22nd, 1742/3. A lengthy and detailed letter regarding financial affairs connected with his late father's estate, including their interests and work being undertaken in South Sea House: "The Gentleman that is about the new Apartment happened to be at the South Sea House at the same time that I was, with a workman to make an estimate of what is to be done with the apartment ........ The South Sea House of Sir John Chapman’s £350:0:0 ........ I thought the house where Mr. De Gols lived had been included in the 360 p.ann but find that the South Sea Company paid £40 p.ann for that besides, now let (as appears by Peacocks rental) to Mr. Astley at £75 p.ann so that is not included in your Jointure".
Eliab Harvey was the son of William Harvey (1689-1742) and his wife Mary née Williamson, of Rolls Park, Chigwell, Essex (a group portrait by Sir Godfrey Kneller of the family, including Eliab and his mother, is in the Tate Gallery collection). William Harvey died on 24th December 1742, so Eliab's letter regarding the family's financial affairs was written a month later. Conrade de Gols was a bank official appointed as the South Sea Company Cashier to tidy up the chaos left by Robert Knight. Eliab Harvey's ancestor Eliab Harvey (b.1590), was the brother of the famous physician Dr William Harvey, and his nephew Sir Eliab Harvey (1758-1830) was the admiral who commanded the Temeraire at Trafalgar.
HEATHCOTE, Sir Gilbert, 4th Baronet ( 1773-1851), politician. Autograph letter signed to "Drummond", 4 sides, 4to, Brick Hill House, Monday 28th [no date - 1793?], apologising for the lapse of time in replying to his letter, explaining he has "been at Luffenham for three weeks recreating myself with the pleasures of the chase", and relating how he became married, concluding "I cannot finish the subject without assuring you that I consider that Lady Mary Milsington did me the greatest favor she possibly could; as it enabled me to cultivate my acquaintance with the then Miss Manners, an acquaintance that has been productive of more real happiness to me then my most sanguine expectations could have induced me to credit". He also writes of his correspondent's interest in horse racing, and on affairs abroad "You know I am a bit of a Politician, think then I am in great anxiety to know whether the Accounts of the great defeat of the French before Maubeuge is confirmed". Edges of paper rather grubby.
Sir Gilbert Heathcote was elected MP for Lincolnshire in 1796, a seat
he held until 1806, after which he represented Rutland from 1812 to 1841. He married
on 16th August 1793 Katherine Sophia Manners (who died in 1825), by whom he had
a son, Gilbert John Heathcote, 5th Baronet (1795-1867), who was created Baron
Aveland. The mention of the battle of Maubeuge suggests that this letter may
date to October 1793, when the siege of Maubeuge was lifted due to the French
victory at Wattignies.
HOOK, Theodore Edward (1788–1841), writer and hoaxer. Autograph letter signed to a Miss Hutton, 8vo, 2 sides of a bifolium with integral blank, Athenaeum Feb 4th 1837, thanking her for her “very flattering letter and kind present of a purse”, and saying he has “just finished another book called Jack Brag which I hope will amuse you as much as you are good enough to say Gilbert Gurney did – nothing can be more agreeable for an author than such encouragement as you have been pleased to give me”.
Theodore Hooke was, according to his own account, principally distinguished at school for mischief, deceitfulness, and a lack of serious application, but his talents began to show through an early introduction to the theatrical world as author of the lyrics of his father's comic operas. His achievements as a writer were at least matched by his penchant for clever practical jokes and, in particular, by his skill in perpetrating hoaxes, of which the most celebrated was the Berners Street hoax of 1809. He later obtained the post of accountant-general and treasurer at Mauritius, but after four years in post an examination into the state of the treasury revealed a shortfall of $62,000 for which Hook could offer no explanation. His property was seized and upon his return to England he was imprisoned from 1823 to 1825. (ODNB)
In troubled times he maintained himself in writing, compiling 9 volumes of stories during his confinement, and launching the newspaper John Bull in 1820. He had 38 volumes of writings published, including novels amongst which he mentions two in this letter - Gilbert Gurney (published 1836) a semi-autobiographical work, and Jack Brag (published 1837) a satire on freeloading.
Upon his death his effects were seized by the crown, but his family were provided for by subscription. John Gibson Lockhart, editor of the Quarterly Review, wrote of him as ‘human, charitable, generous. … and there was that about him which made it hard to be often in his society without regarding him with as much of fondness as of admiration’, Coleridge described him as being ‘as true a genius as Dante’ (ODNB).
Jackson, Francis James (1770–1814), diplomatist. Manuscript receipt signed by Francis James Jackson, Berlin, 8th January 1803, 200 x 100 mm with embossed tax stamp, "Received of the Right Honourable Lord Hawkesbury, His Majesty’s Principal Secretary of State for Foreign Affairs, the Sum of Three Hundred Pounds, issued to his Lordship in pursuance of the Civil List Act".
Francis James Jackson was sent to Berlin as minister-plenipotentiary in 1802, where he married, and later, in 1809, he was sent as minister-plenipotentiary to Washington, where he remained until the breakdown in relations between Great Britain and the United States in 1811. Lord Hawkesbury was the courtesy title of Robert Banks Jenkinson (1770–1828), who became second earl of Liverpool upon his father's death in 1808. He held the office of Foreign Secretary 1801–1804, and became Prime Minister in 1812.
[JEFFREYS, Lady Anne (1657–1703)] Autograph letter signed from Thomas Williams to Lady Anne Jeffreys, 1 side plus integral blank with address panel, 8vo, Cardiff, 9th July 1680, asking for a debt to be settled "that is to order ye paymt of fifteen pounds fifteen shillings being ye full Balance of all Accompts to this day, I would not press Sr George with it when I was in London, but Rather make my Application to your Ladyshipp, as knowing that your Ladyshipp will bee very kinde and just toward mee", and including a postscript "My humble and harty thanks to your Ladyshipp for ye great ffavor Reced when I was at your Ladyshipps table." Part of integral blank torn off, but not affecting the address panel. PHOTO
Lady Anne Jeffreys was the second wife of the judge, Sir George Jeffreys, first Baron Jeffreys (1645–1689). They married on 10 June 1679 at St Mary Aldermanbury, where his first wife had been buried the year before. His new wife Anne, was the widow of Sir John Jones of Glamorgan, and the daughter of Sir Thomas Bludworth, a wealthy merchant and friend of Jeffreys. The marriage was mocked by the press, who attacked Ann Jeffreys for her alleged dalliances. Jeffreys was particularly busy in 1680 adjudicating in a series of troublesome seditious libel cases, so one can perhaps sympathise with Williams choosing to approach Lady Jeffreys over the settlement of the debt.
JENKYNS, Richard (1782–1854), college head, Oxford. Autograph letter signed to an unnamed correspondent [Mr Bere], 1 side, 4to, July 16 [no year, c1830s], regarding a debt due to Balliol College from a Mr Bere..“Upon application to James Stole Esqr according to the advice given by you to Mr. Round the College Bursar, I am this morning informed by a letter from Mr. Stole himself, that he did not obtain possession of the Estate purchased of Mr. Bere until Michs:1830, & therefore that Mr. Bere is bound to pay up to that time”.
Jenkyns was appointed tutor of Balliol College,
Oxford in 1813, bursar in 1814, and on 23 April 1819 was elected master. At his
death Balliol could claim to rank as the first college in Oxford.
KENRICK, Timothy (1759–1804), Unitarian minister and tutor. Autograph letter signed to an unnamed correspondent, 1 side, cut down page c 5.5 x 6.5 ins, Exeter, May 15th, 1793, sending (not present) “a Bill for eighteen Pounds twelve shilling, ye exact amount of ye Books wch I have received from ye Unitarian Society in London, for ye use of ye Society of Unitarian Christian in ye West”, adding that “As no notice has been taken of my 5th of Novr. Sermon in ye Monthly or Critical Reviews, I shoud be glad to know whether copies of it have been sent to ye Reviewers”.
During his ministry in Exeter, Kenrick encountered both religious and political controversy, especially in the years following the French Revolution. Although Kenrick was appalled at the violence of the terror in France, he deplored the British government's measures to restrict civil liberties and refused to observe the general fast on 1 February 1793, the day that Britain went to war with France. Continued criticism led him to offer his resignation in April 1793, but was persuaded to withdraw by his congregation. He also considered emigrating to the United States, but was again dissuaded, and by 1798 he had decided to stay in Exeter. ODNB
KING, Richard (1810/11–1876), Arctic traveller and ethnologist. Two autograph letters signed to Sir John Phillipart, 8vo as follows:
1. ALS 3 sides, Statistical Society of London, 12 St James Square, 3 March 1846, with endorsement, paper slightly browned at head and foot, regarding a publication review "I was so pressed upon for time to complete the Quarterly Journal of the Statistical Society by the 1st of March .......... that I could not consider you’re your kind proposition. It appears to me that it would be an act of injustice to Sir John Barrow & to the public if I were to review the work under consideration & I would much prefer handing over the material to your own review & stating the remarks so that it may appear as a letter".
2. ALS one side, Statistical Society of London, 12 St James Square, 15 April 1846, with dated endorsement, paper slightly discoloured at head, regarding a naval appointment "In the Naval & Military Gazette of March 28th I find a return of Jerome [?] who volunteered to serve in the "Eclair", but finding no mention of his name he asks Phillipart if he can let him know "if the return was made for in the House of Commons".
Richard King began his career apprenticed to an apothecary, later becoming a licentiate of the Society of Apothecaries and member of the Royal College of Surgeons. He was appointed in 1833 surgeon and naturalist to the expedition led by George Back to look for John Ross, who had been searching for the north-west passage. He took great interest in Franklin's expedition and was one of the first to raise the alarm when he failed to return. King insisted, at first on very slender evidence, that Franklin's party would be found near the mouth of the Great Fish River. His opinion was discounted and in 1847 and 1856 his offer to lead a search party was refused. King was active in his profession and in learned societies, notably the Ethnological Society and the Statistical Society, and his medical works on the cause of death in stillborn babies and on cholera were much respected at the time and he received several medical honours. (ODNB).
Both letters are to the military writer Sir John Philippart (c.1784–1875). The first letter evidently concerns a proposed review of a publication by the Arctic explorer Sir John Barrow (1764-1848), geographer and promoter of Arctic exploration. In early 1846 this is presumably relates to Barrow's book Voyages of Discovery and Research within the Arctic Regions, from the Year 1818 to the Present Time published by John Murray.
The ship mentioned in the second letter was the steam sloop HMS Eclair, launched in 1843 under the name of the Inferno. It had returned in October 1845 from a disastrous mission on the west coast of Africa in which 71 of the 146 men on board died of yellow fever.
LEGGE, William, first earl of Dartmouth (1672–1750), politician. Letter signed Dartmouth, to the Earl of Northampton Constable of the Tower, Whitehall, 25 June 1713, 1 side 4to, conveying that "Her Maty. commands me to acquaint your Lordship that when the French Ambassador makes his public Entry, it is her pleasure he should be treated with all the marks of respect that are usually shewn to persons of his Character on the like occasion". Manuscript endorsement on integral blank leaf 'June 25th 1713. Ld Dartmouth's letter concerning ye reception of the French Ambassador at ye Tower when he made his Public Entry'.
On 5 September 1711 William Legge 2nd Baron Dartmouth and secretary of state for the southern department, was created Viscount Lewisham and earl of Dartmouth, and later that month signed the preliminary articles of peace with France. Prince Eugene (François Eugène 1663 –1736) visited England in 1712 hoping to divert the government away from its peace policy but, despite the social success, the visit was a political failure. The Prince found Dartmouth ‘very pliable, a great stickler for the tory party, but not much bred to business, of a tolerable sense, and easily led’ (ODNB). The treaties which helped end the War of the Spanish Succession were concluded between the representatives of Louis XIV of France and Philip V of Spain on the one hand, and representatives of Queen Anne of Great Britain, the Duke of Savoy, the King of Portugal and the United Provinces on the other. The main treaties (Treaty of Utrecht) were finally signed on 11 April 1713, although the French continued to be at war with the Emperor Charles VI and with the Holy Roman Empire itself until 1714.
The Constable of the Tower was George Compton, 4th Earl of Northampton (1664-1727), who served as Constable of the Tower of London from 1712 to 1715. The French ambassador evidently was landed by boat at the Tower of London.
SLAVE SHIP VOYAGE : BRISTOL TO GUINEA TO BARBADOS
LISLE, William (born c 1707), surgeon. Autograph letter signed to his brother [Robert Lisle] 2 sides, small 4to, London, Aug 10th 1736, together with his will, 1 side plus integral blank, folio (with small marginal tears), signed and sealed, with the witness signatures of Anne Gerhard and W.Tyndale, 10th August 1736. The two items still joined by an original pin. In his letter William opens with reference to his brother's ill state of health "which I believe is wholly occasioned by your sedentary course of life & intense thinking" and goes on to discuss his plans "I should have been very glad to have settled in the Country had not my unfortunate Misconduct reduced my circumstances to such a state as to require such desperate adventures .......... I sett out to Morrow for Bristol to go Surgeon in the Ship Queen Eliz Char:...... to Guinea & Barbadoes. I have 4 x Mens Wages and 1 Shill for every Slave.....". His letter goes on to explain his meagre finances, his enclosed will (leaving his estate to his brother), his hopes for returning to England, and he recommends physicians who may be able to help his brother's condition . PHOTO
The two items £250
William Lisle was born about 1707 at Weldon in Northumberland, one of four children of Robert Lisle (1662-1719) and Margaret Brown. His brother Robert (1704-1779) the eldest child also born in Weldon, was the sole named beneficiary and executor of the will, which was clearly drawn up as a precautionary measure upon undertaking a long voyage. Lisle's planned voyage was on the "triangular trade" route, on which goods were typically transported from Bristol to the West African coast (in this case Guinea), where they were exchanged for slaves, who in turn were transported on the "middle passage" to the Caribbean and exchanged for sugar which was shipped back to England.
LoNSDALE, James Lowther, earl of (1736–1802), politician and landowner. Autograph letter signed to an unnamed correspondent [Henry Dundas], 2 sides plus integral blank with docket, folio, February 16th 1793, thanking him for his letter, but expressing frustration at not having received a positive answer, which prevents him "from making the necessary Returns", and pursuing his request "Notwithstanding Lord Amhurst's unjustifiable conduct towards me in the last War, of which you yourself were a Witness ............ I would .... talk to him upon the subject of the letter I troubled you with, could I think it of any avail .............. as my Commission as Brigadr. General was acknowledged at the War Office ...... during the German War, & also in the American War, ...... thro' the Secretary of States Office, signed by Mr. Pitt ........ I am led to suppose that the Secretary of State is the person I am to apply to upon the present occasion", and in closing "I shall be much obliged to you if you will let me have an answer as soon as possible, for I desirous of shewing myself forward in His Majesty's Service". Ex collection Sir Thomas Phillips. Three of the four margins grubby.
Lonsdale inherited vast estates, especially in Cumberland and Westmorland, and throughout his life lavished money on elections, in an attempt to exercise political control. Always seeking preferment, he hounded the government for a peerage (eventually granted by William Pitt in 1784), but was refused a dukedom in 1792.
From internal evidence, Lonsdale's letter is directed to the Secretary of State, Henry Dundas, first Viscount Melville (1742–1811), a longstanding ally of Pitt. The letter is written a fortnight after France declared war upon Britain (on 1st February,1793), and although Lord Amherst had been brought out of retirement at the end of January as General in command the army in Great Britain, Lonsdale clearly saw little point in pressing the matter with him. Application to the Secretary of State had, on the other hand, evidently been successful in obtaining a military position in the past. A year later, on 14th March 1794, Lonsdale was appointed colonel in the army during service.
Disliked by many, critics such as Horace Walpole, considered Lonsdale to be
‘equally unamiable in public and private’, while at the stronger end of the
scale, the Rev.Alexander Carlyle believed him to be ‘more detested than any man
alive as a shameless political sharper, a domestic bashaw, and an intolerant
tyrant over his tenants and dependents’.
LYTTON, Edward George Earle Lytton Bulwer first Baron Lytton (1803–1873), writer and politician. Autograph letter signed to [Thomson] Hankey, 8vo, 4 sides, with a date in pencil in another hand of April 1864, thanking the Hankeys for their invitation for the April 22nd but regretting that he is unable to accept as he is “still too unwell to venture out to evening parties”. He goes on to say “I could have wished Madame Ernst (the wife of my friend the famous composer and violinist) to have heard ---- Ernestine for Madame Ernst is by far the finest amateur Reader & Actress in French I have ever heard, & a most enlightened & generous Critic of the art of others ……. I don’t know if she could go were you kind enough to ask her, since her husband is an Invalid…..”. In a post-script he adds “I suspect the D. of Newcastle has got into a very awkward case about the Tuscaloosa - And one that would have upset some fools there who looked into it”. Last side rather grubby, with paper wear at base.
Edward Bulwer Lytton was a prolific writer in a wide range of genres, and during his lifetime was outsold only by Dickens, and only Dickens was more widely translated. He also pursued an active political career (at the time of writing this letter was a Conservative MP for Hertfordshire) and from 1858 served as Secretary of State for the Colonies (he was followed by the Duke of Newcastle). Over the course of a long career he made the acquaintance of most of the leading writers and politicians of the day, but he had very few close friends, most notably Disraeli and Dickens, Lady Blessington and John Forster (ODNB).
Heinrich Wilhelm Ernst (1812 -1865) was an outstanding violinist and composer and one of Paganini's greatest successors. After 1844 he mainly lived in England, and in 1854 he married the French poet and actress Amélie-Siona Lévy. From 1862 ill health made him unable to play, and he spent the last seven years of his life in retirement, chiefly in Nice, where he spent time composing.
The C.S.S. Tuscaloosa was seized off Simon’s Town, South Africa late in 1863 as an uncondemned prize which had violated the neutrality of Her Majesty's Government. As Secretary for the Colonies the Duke of Newcastle gave a ruling over the affair, but the controversy rumbled on until April 1864 when Parliament debated the issues, and the ship was finally released.
Bulwer’s correspondent was Thomson Hankey (1805–1893), a politician and political economist who joined his father's firm of Thomson Hankey & Co., plantation owners and West Indies merchants, becoming a long-serving senior partner. He was elected a director of the Bank of England in 1835, and later served as deputy governor (1849–51) and as governor (1851–3). In 1853 he was elected as Liberal MP for Peterborough, a seat he held until 1868 and again between 1874 and 1880.
MARTINEAU, Harriet (1802–1876), writer, journalist and sociologist. Autograph letter signed to an unnamed correspondent (“Dear Friend”) in light blue ink, 8vo., no place, no date (headed “saty morng”), inviting a friend to dine “Mrs Porter will be most happy to see you, they bid me say come early & we will have a walk on the Heath”, and closes giving directions to the Porters’ house on Putney Heath. Gum line mark on reverse just showing through left front margin, and later ink inscription by a collector (?) “Miss Harriet Martineau” at the letter head.
Harriet Martineau wrote 35 books and a multitude of articles from a sociological, holistic, religious, domestic, and a feminine perspective and translated various works from Auguste Comte, making a living supported entirely by her writing. Martineau introduced feminist sociological perspectives in her writing on issues such as marriage, children, domestic and religious life, and race relations. The novelist Margaret Oliphant said "as a born lecturer and politician she was less distinctively affected by her sex than perhaps any other, male or female, of her generation." (Wikipedia).
Her friends the Porters were George Richardson Porter (1792–1852), civil servant and statistician, and his wife Sarah Ricardo Porter (1790–1862) a writer on education, who lived for a time on Putney Heath. (See ODNB).
MITCHELL, Sir Andrew (1708–1771), diplomatist. Manuscript Bill submitted and signed by Sir Andrew Mitchell, Envoy Extraordinary and Minister Plenipotentiary to the King of Prussia, detailing expenses of £150, countersigned Rochford, 1 side folio, Whitehall 19th May 1769.
Sir Andrew Mitchell (1708–1771) was the most successful British representative in Berlin during the eighteenth century, notable in particular for developing a friendship with Frederick the Great, and cementing the Anglo-Prussian partnership during the early years of the Seven Years' War. Relations deteriorated in the 1760s, and during this final decade of his life, Mitchell enjoyed the company of the wide circle of academic and literary friends he had built up in Berlin, and retained the respect and grudging friendship of the king. (ODNB)
William Henry van Nassau van Zuylestein,, fourth earl of Rochford (1717–1781), was an effective diplomatist and politician. Following appointments as ambassador to Spain 1763-1766 and ambassador to Paris 1766-1768, he was named secretary of state for the northern department on 21 October 1768. Foreign diplomats in London found Rochford more accessible and better informed than his predecessors, while British diplomats abroad were relieved and delighted to be instructed by an experienced former ambassador. As northern secretary (1768–70) Rochford was particularly scrupulous in his conduct of the routine correspondence and gave more coherence to British foreign policy than had been evident during the Chatham administration. (ODNB).
NASMYTH, James Hall (1808–1890), mechanical engineer. Autograph letter signed to Cundell, 8vo, 1 side plus integral blank, Penhurst, Kent, Oct 31st 1882, expressing his grief that he is "not to be able to be present and pay my last sad tribute to the remains of the Dear departed "most worthy Master"! It must be some consolation to all whom he was so Dear that he departed without Pain after his long and happy and admirable life. We shall never meet with his like again".
Nasmyth's letter refers to the death of George Cundell (1798-1882), a scientist, pioneering photographer and politician, and is possibly addressed to one of Cundell's surviving brothers. Nasmyth refers fondly to Cundell in his 'autobiography' compiled by Samuel Smiles in 1883: 'Among my most intelligent private friends in London were George Cundell and his two brothers. They resided near my lodgings, and I often visited them on Saturday evenings. They were most kind, gentle, and genial ....... George was agent for Mr. Patrick Maxwell Stuart in connection with his West India estates ........ My special friend George was known amongst us as "the worthy master." He was thoroughly versed in general science, and was moreover a keen politician. He had the most happy faculty of treating complex subjects, both in science and politics, in a thoroughly common-sense manner ........ With companions such as these, gi ith a variety of tastes, I spent many of my Saturday evenings most pleasantly and profitably. They were generally concluded with a glass of beer of "the worthy master's" own brewing.'
FLORENCE NIGHTINGALE: INSCRIBED BOOK
NIGHTINGALE, Florence (1820–1910), reformer of Army Medical Services and of nursing organization. Autograph dedication signed to "Mary Bratby in remembrance of her affectionate friend Florence Nightingale March 1860", written on an inner free endpaper of the book Holy Living by Jeremy Taylor, accompanied by the matching companion volume Holy Dying, both published by Bell and Daldy, London 1857. In original calf bindings newly rebacked, the dedication page with offset marks from old cuttings (not present); the engraved frontispiece with stains, board corners worn, and the edges of the free marbled endpapers tatty. The text of both volumes is in good condition. Inserted between the pages of Holy Dying are a few lose ephemeral items from a previous owner, including a photograph of an unidentified gentleman (1920s). PHOTO
was Florence Nightingale's housekeeper and a close friend. Several letters
are known from Nightingale to Mary Bratby between 1879 and 1890, but only
occasional references to her are found beforehand, making this a scarce "document". Florence Nightingale had only been back in
England four years since her life-changing experiences of the Crimea when she
presented these books. In 1860
she privately published a 3 volume work ‘Suggestions
for thought, to the Searchers after Truth Among the Artizans of England’
in which she
set out her personal religious philosophy, arguing that
work was the means by which every individual could achieve self-fulfilment and
serve God. Florence Nightingale
was a Christian
Universalist, and the choice of the gift of Taylor's books is interesting in
relation to her own religious beliefs. Holy Living and Holy
Dying had been best selling manuals of practical piety ever since their
publication in the 17th century.
Norton, Caroline Elizabeth Sarah (1808–1877), author and law reform campaigner. Autograph letter signed to Mrs. Hyford Burr, 3 sides, 8vo, no place, no date [1864?], accepting an invitation, and mentioning her meeting with Garibaldi “a man more like an ideal hero than most of those one is compelled to admit are “famous” – and whose sweet clear animated utterance seems the very voice he ought to have to speak with. I wonder if he will be killed & suffocated by the warm drawing room full of compliments like the people who go into untried catacombs & dried up wells!”. Corners browned and thinned on reverse of last (blank) page from removal from an album.
A prolific author, Caroline Norton suffered a disastrous marriage to George Norton, the outcome of which led Caroline to force a debate and reform legislation in relation to child custody, divorce and property rights. Her mention of having met Garibaldi, the popular hero of the age of Italian unification, almost certainly places this letter in 1864, when Garibaldi visited London.
OBLIGATION BOND TO 'MAKE GOOD' GUNPOWDER 1668
OBLIGATION BOND of James and John Lloyd, 1 side folio with integral blank, 7th May 1668, to make good 200 barrels of defective gunpowder. Docketed on the reverse "Mr James Lloyd & his Bother ye Drs Bond for 200 Barrlls of -?-. 9 May 1668". In Latin and English, signed and sealed by James and John Lloyd, and witnessed by Tho. Townsend and John Whitinge. “…..whereas the above bound James Lloyd hath had and received out of his Maties stores within the office of the ordnance Two hundred Barells defective and dammadg’d Gunpowder to be by him repaired and made serviceable with good and new materials and returned into his Maties said stores within the tyme and space of Sixe weekes …..”. A very fine and attractive document. PHOTO
In the opening Latin paragraph of the document the Lloyd brothers are described as "Jacobus Lloyd de London Armiger et Johanne Lloyd de eodem Locum Theoligia Doctorem". James Lloyd is recorded from other sources as founding gunpowder mills at Wandsworth in 1656 with one Abel Richardson.
ONSLOW, Mary, Lady [née Elwill]. Manuscript bill of account, entitled "Lady Elwills Bill about Lady Onslows Marriage settlement" dated 1741, 3 sides of folded large folio, with a note at the foot "14th June 1743 Recd of the right honorable the Lord Onslow by ye hands of Barwell Smith Esq the full .....bill by me Joseph Ashton". Listing various interesting matters with itemised costs against each eg:
"Attending several times by Lady Elwell's directions on the speaker of the
House of Commons ................. 1:1:0"
"For copy of the Petition that the portion of 6000£ and 2000£ might be paid to Lord Onslow the marriage having been solemnized .............. 0:6:8"
"Attending at the South Sea House along with Mr. Jacoub[?] Lord Onslow's
Solicitor to accept the South Sea annuities that were bought with the 2000£ ................ 0:10:6"
Paper split along two folds, with repairs with document tape and old paper. PHOTO
Mary Elwill was christened 7 December 1720 at St. James’, Westminster, London, the daughter of Sir Edmund Elwill, 3rd Baronet and Ann (née Speke, born 1696) his wife. She married on 16 May 1741 at St. James’ Westminster, Richard 3rd Baron Onslow, (born 1715) KB., LLD, High Steward of Guildford, Lord Lieutenant for Surrey, and MP Guildford 1734-40. The Lady Elwill in the document is Lady Onslow's mother, Lady Mary Elwill.
PALMERSTON, Henry John Temple, third Viscount (1784–1865), prime minister. Letter signed "Palmerston" to H L Lee Esq.,13 Burlington Street, Bath, 1 side, fo., War Office, 11th January 1811, docketed on the reverse, acknowledging receipt of a letter of the 2nd on the subject of "the Loss sustained by Jane Richards, by the ill conduct of a Party of the 39th and 71st Regiments on their March from Bridgeworth to Kidderminster in October last" which "having taken into consideration the circumstances represented by you, I have now to acquaint you, that an authority has been given to the District Paymaster at Shrewsbury to pay to the Woman the Sum of One Pound, as a Compensation for the said Loss". Several old paper repairs to reverse.
Palmerston accepted Spencer Perceval's offer of the secretaryship at war in 1809, which he was to retain under five prime ministers outside the cabinet until 1827. The incident behind this order for compensation would be most interesting to research further in local sources.
FIRST BRITISH EXPEDITION INTO GUINEA, WEST AFRICA 1816
PEDDIE, John (d.1817), African explorer. A collection of manuscript letters from Major John Peddie based in Senegal regarding his proposed expedition of 1816 (see PHOTO) as follows:
1. Letter signed from John Peddie, Senegal, 1st September 1816 to a Mr Kommer, folio, 4 sides, the top edge slightly grubby and frayed, regarding the employment of his correspondent on his expedition "In consequence of the wish you some time ago expressed, to proceed with me into the Interior of Africa I lately addressed His Excellency Colonel Schmalz on the subject, and having received from him the most satisfactory answer, accompanied at the same time with favourable recommendations; I have decided with the Opinion of Captain Campbell, to accept of your Services, and will attach you to the Expedition, should the terms I now offer you be accepted" followed by several pages of detailed requirements, including: "As your great Forte seems to be Natural History I will expect that during our Journey you will collect as often as you can, such specimens, as may appear to be unknown in Europe, and worthy of Notice, giving the preference to those of most utility, whether of the Vegetable or Animal Creation ........... Drawings of such as cannot be preserved, must be made, accompanied, with a detailed description .......You will be expected to keep a regular Journal which, as well as your Drawings, Sketches, and Observations, must be considered as Public property .......... I am not aware if you are acquainted with Astronomy but as that branch is particularly under the direction of Captn. Campbell, it would only be necessary for you, to assist in taking the observations .........your rank among the Gentlemen proceeding with me, will be assigned to you; the men will have orders to obey you .......... I will allow you a yearly salary during the time you are attached to the Expedition, but I feel unwilling to name it, as you must be the best judge how your own time and Talents ought to be rewarded".
2. Autograph letter signed from John Peddie, Senegal, 9th September 1816 to a J. Kommer Esq, 4to, 4 sides, acknowledging his letter of the 7th stating his terms "I beg to say that they appear to me so very extravagant that I can not possibly agree to them – when I assure you it is my opinion that the first Professor of Natural History in England would not have made such demands you will not I trust conceive I decline your Services from any other reason, than being unable to comply with the terms submitted to me ..........In order that His Excellency Colonel Schmaltz may know my reasons for declining your Services, I will address him by the first opportunity and enclose him your letter ".
3. Autograph letter in 3rd person from John Peddie, 27th September 1816 to Mr Kommer, 8vo, 1 side of a bifolium with address panel, requesting the company of Mr Kommer at dinner at 4 o'clock.
4. Letter signed from John Peddie, Senegal, 24th October 1816 to Thomas Harrison Esq, Treasury Chambers, London, 4to, 1 side of a bifolium, small tears top right, informing Harrison that "Having found it necessary to appoint Mr. Kummer, a German Naturalist, to proceed with me into the Interior of Africa, to supply the place of Doctor Hall (who has returned to England in consequence of bad health) appointed to succeed Staff Surgeon Cowdry, I have found it necessary to Draw on the Lords Commissioners of His Majestys Treasury, for the Sum of Two Hundred and fifty Pounds Sterling, being for the amount of His Expenses and outfit;- previous to proceeding with me into the Interior. ...........I have also entered into an agreement with Mr. Kummer which I have submitted to Earl Bathurst and in consequence I have left a Bill behind me in his favor".
5. Autograph letter signed from John Peddie, 4 o'clock Sunday Morning (in pencil "le16 Nov: 1816"] to a J. Kommer Esq, folio, 1 side of a bifolium with address panel, with a few ink marks and 2 seal marks, regarding urgent travel arrangements "The vessel appointed for you to proceed by sails at day light this morning – it is absolutely necessary that you proceed by her – if any of your affairs remain here unsettled have the goodness to leave directions with me how you wish them arranged and I will do any thing for you with pleasure".
6. Autograph letter signed from John Peddie, 17th November 1816 to Mr Kommer, 8vo, 1 side of a bifolium with address panel, with 2 seal marks, in reply "I have read your note and wish arrange every thing to your satisfaction on my arrival at Goree if any thing is wanted to be done for you here I will settle it for you".
John Peddie's expedition originated in a government sponsored plan to explore and chart the River Niger and clarify the circumstances of the death of Mungo Park. It was also felt that Britain should establish interests along the African coast ahead of the French re-establishing their interests following the end of the European war. Peddie, temporarily assigned to the British Royal African Corps, arrived in Saint-Louis, Senegal, with his second in command Captain Thomas Campbell in November 1815. Peddie and Campbell began gathering intelligence in the region in order to consider their options, alongside which they recruited personnel and secured provisions. In mid 1816 Peddie decided to reach the Niger via the Rio Nunez on the Guinea coast, crossing Fuuta Jaloo and the Fula empire. Peddie reached the Rio Nunez in early December 1817 but died of fever within a month of his arrival. Campbell continued with the expedition but encountered numerous problems, and he too died of fever in June 1817.
Colonel Julien Schmaltz (1771-1826) who is mentioned in the letters was a French colonial administrator and governor of Senegal from 1816 to 1820.On 17 June 1816 he had departed for Saint-Louis, Senegal on board the frigate La Méduse to take up his position as governor when it ran aground. On board with him was the naturalist and explorer Adolf Kummer (1786-1817) a native of Saxony (his name and initials are misrecorded in the letters) who Peddie in the end recruited for the expedition. Kummer suffered the same fate as so many others in the expedition in being struck down by fever in 1817.
See Mouser, Bruce L. "Forgotten Expedition into Guinea, West Africa, 1815–17: An Editor’s Comments." History in Africa 35.1 (2008): 481-489.
PORTEN, Sir Stanier (bap. 1716, d. 1789), government official. Autograph letter signed to Sir Grey Cooper, 1 side 4to, St James's 13 May 1777, acknowledging receipt of Sir Grey's letter with "the draught Petition of Dr Layard to the House of Commons", returning it enclosed (not present) "and for Lord North's information transmit the copy of a letter from Lord Rochford when he was Secretary of State for the Northern Department to the Lord President of the Council, by which you will see from whence originates Dr Layard's Correspondence in Holland", concluding that "What may have followed in Flanders, France and with Baron Noleken has probably been in consequence of the Drs corresponding with Dr Petrus Camper in Holland".
Porten was appointed under-secretary to Lord Rochford in 1768, then secretary of state for the northern department, and in 1770 he followed Rochford to the southern department, where he remained under-secretary until 1782. He was also keeper of the state papers at Whitehall from 1774, and was uncle of the historian Edward Gibbon (ODNB).
His correspondent Sir Grey Cooper (c.1726–1801) was a successful lawyer and politician, and from 1765 to 1782 was secretary to the Treasury. The subject of the letter was Dr Daniel Peter Layard (1721–1802), man-midwife, obstetrician and physician. Dr Petrus Camper FRS (1722-1789) was a highly respected Dutch physician, anatomist, man-midwife, and naturalist.
Potter, Thomas (1718?–1759), wit and politician. Two autograph letters signed, both 3 sides each, 4to, to “My Lord” January 7th, and Jan. 10 1754, seeking his correspondent’s support in standing as MP for Aylesbury. "I am informed that there is at Wickham an Anabaptist Teacher whose Name is Piety. He is likewise the Teacher at Ailesbury for which Place I have declared myself a Candidate. It is in the Power of this Gentleman to do me Service with the People of his own Persuasion and I am told that no Persons Recommendation will have so much Weight with him as your Lordships."....... ...... "My Principles my Lord, are publickly known, & the struggles wch the Tories in Ailsburuy are making to raise an Opposition to me because I am too much a Whig may satisfy those who do not know me that at least I am not a Tory."
Potter sat for the borough of Aylesbury from 1754 to 1757, and in government supported Pitt the elder. In 1756 he was appointed paymaster-general of the land forces, and the following year joint vice-treasurer of Ireland. Considered good-looking, Potter has been identified as the candidate depicted in Hogarth's election series, and was a member of the bizarre club known as the Medmenham Monks, or Franciscans, created by Sir Francis Dashwood.
ISAAC MILNER, NATURAL PHILOSOPHER
[QUEEN'S COLLEGE CAMBRIDGE]. Manuscript document addressed to James, Bishop of Ely, with the signatures of Isaac Milner President of Queens' College, Cambridge; Robert Morris; J.Thomas Jordan; James Saunders; and R.A.Ingram; 1 page folio, 14th November 1788, providing a reference for the Reverend George Hewitt 'one of the Fellows of the said College'. With a red wax seal bearing the impressed arms of Queens' College, Cambridge. PHOTO
Isaac Milner (1750–1820) was an eminent natural philosopher and dean of Carlisle. Queens' College offered him a fellowship in 1776, following which he became a priest and college tutor, and in 1778 he was presented with the rectory of St Botolph. During these years his career as a natural philosopher began to take off. In 1776 Nevil Maskelyne hired him as a computer for the board of longitude, and two of his mathematical papers were presented to the Royal Society, of which he was elected fellow in 1780. In 1782 the Jacksonian professorship of natural philosophy was established and Milner was selected as the inaugural professor, a position he retained until 1792. After his death Milner was remembered for his astonishing intellect, his peculiar lifestyle, his tremendous physical bulk and his part in the rise in evangelicalism (ODNB).
The Rev George Hewitt M.A., B.D. entered Queens' College, Cambridge in 1783. He was later vicar of Ickleton, Cambridgeshire; vicar of Witton, Norfolk; rector of St Botolph's, Cambridge; and rector of Sandon, Essex. Descibed as "a scandalous old reprobate", he died in 1846.
RIVERS, Richard Savage, fourth Earl (c.1654–1712), army officer and politician. Autograph letter in third person, signed, 2 sides, with integral blank with address panel and docket, 8vo, "For Mr Black, Mercht. in Rotterdam", February 5th 1711/12, regarding supplies of Champaign and china. "The champain you mention is not yet cleard all the Custome Hous yet I can give you noe account of it. Ye 6 Hogsheads I got off in a day and could have done as much more if you had sent it, consider, and if you find it turns better to account wth the risks you run, to send it over then sell it ther .............. pray send me on dozen of blew china cups wth handles and sawcers, and on dozen of Jappan china cups wth sawcers". Two stab-holes through both leaves; small tears on integral blank where seal broken, and traces of two paper hinges.
Rivers became colonel of the Royal Regiment of Horse Guards on 4 January 1712, and on 18 January was appointed general and commander-in-chief of the army in Great Britain. Shortly after receiving these appointments, he became seriously ill and went to Bath. He died at his home at Ealing Grove, Middlesex on 18 August 1712.
ROBINSON, John (1650-1723), bishop of London and diplomatist. Parchment document signed "Joh: London", 345 x 355 mm, with bishop of London's wafer seal, and tax seals, countersigned by (his secretary) Ed.Alexander, December 8th 1714, in Latin, appointing Robert Moss to the Rectory of Gilston, Hertford. Three dockets on the reverse, one recording that "Dr Robert Moss was this day instituted to the Rectory of Gilston alias Gedlestone in the County of Hertford in the presence of us .... J.Gibbon .... Tho:Winton". Folded on right side, light staining, and the episcopal seal crumpled and with cracks.
Following significant diplomatic service in Sweden and Northern Europe, Robinson was in 1710 consecrated bishop of Bristol, and the following year was appointed as lord privy seal and a privy councillor. His experience as mediator and position as Bishop, were a perfect combination in him becoming Britain's first plenipotentiary for the peace negotiations at Utrecht. He proposed the final cease-fire of the war on 27 June 1713 and was the first to sign the peace of Utrecht, that ended the War of the Spanish Succession. He returned to London in August 1713, and on 13 March 1714, was consecrated bishop of London. His support of the Whigs earlier in 1714 in respect of the protestant succession, was rewarded upon the accession of George I, who reappointed him privy councillor in September (Queen Anne had died 1st August).
The subject of the document was Robert Moss (c1666-1729), who had been installed as dean of Ely in 1713, and by this document was given the rectory of Gilston. Moss, a high-churchman and Tory, had supported the controversial clergyman Henry Sacheverell throughout his trail in 1710. When Sacheverell began to re-emerge in 1714 (his bar from preaching having been lifted), it was John Robinson who ordered him to return to his parish and stop meddling in politics. The death of Anne, and a triumphant Whig government under George I, brought the end of preferment for high-church clergymen, and perhaps also curtailed Moss in ambitions beyond the Ely deanery, and Gilston rectory.
Robinson, Thomas, first Baron Grantham (1695–1770), diplomatist and politician. Affadavit signed by Thomas Robinson and witnessed by Wm Thomson, with seal, 1 side, on cut down 4to sheet, 23rd April, 1729, certifying that "His Excellency Cornelius Hop, Sherif and Counselor of the City of Amsterdam, and now Ambassador Extraordinary and Plenipotentiary of the United Provinces at the Congress of Soissons is alive at Paris this present twelfth day of April.....". One corner cut away (not affecting text), and corners dog-eared.
Horace Walpole appointed Robinson as secretary to the embassy in Paris in 1724, and in a short space of time he found himself chargé d'affaires in Walpole’s absence. In this role, Robinson was highly conscientious, the embassy being anxious to counter the influences of the Jacobite court. Elected MP for Thirsk in 1727, he continued serving abroad, and in 1728 and 1729 was one of three English representatives at the Congress of Soissons, set up to try and secure peace across Europe. In 1730, he was transferred to Vienna, where he remained until returning to England in 1748, to take up politics at home.
ROSE, Hugh James (1795–1838), Church of England clergyman. Autograph letter signed to an unnamed correspondent, 2 sides, 4to, Hadleigh, March 9, 1833, extending his thanks to the Ipswich Literary Society for electing him an Honorary Member, “I can say with great truth that no one can hear with greater pleasure than myself of Institutions for the purpose of extending a knowledge of real and sound Literature”. Small blemish to right margin.
Rose was a popular preacher, and of his writings,
“Discourses on the State of the Protestant Religion in Germany” (1825), firmly
established his reputation as an eminent high-church divine. He held office as
select preacher in the University of Cambridge in 1825 to 1834. Ill health
forced Rose to make a series of changes of residence in his later years - he was
dean of Bocking and rector of Hadleigh, Suffolk (1830–34). In 1833 he was
appointed the first regius professor of divinity at the new University of
Durham, but ill health forced him to resign his post within a year.
RUSSELL, William (1746–1793), historian. Autograph letter signed to George Robinson, 1 side 4to plus integral blank, Knottyholm, January 25 1791, sympathizing with Robinson's complaints at not having received copy, but informing him that "I have now finished my views of the early progress of Idolatory; a subject that has filled volumes, but which I have comprehended with a few pages" and that "In this paquet I have sent three sheets of copy, and shall send other three sometime next week. On this you may depend". In a post script he adds "The whole introduction, as far as I can judge, will make nine sheets. At least I will endeavor that it shall not exceed that quantity. You will now have copy for near seven".
Russell was able to earn a living from his literary work from 1770 onwards, producing works on history (notably The History of America, from the First Discovery by Columbus to the Conclusion of the Late War completed in 1779) and other subjects including poetry, essays, an unsuccessful play, and a tribute to Sarah Siddons, the actress. In 1787 he married a Miss Scott, and settled at Knottyholm, a farm near Langholm, Dumfriesshire, belonging to the duke of Buccleuch. In 1792 he received the honorary degree of LLD from St Andrews University. His health was poor, and this was made worse by constant arguments with booksellers. His correspondent George Robinson was a member of a successful family of booksellers who traded at Addison's Head, 25 Paternoster Row, London, from 1764 until 1822, and for many years were the greatest trading booksellers and publishers in England. (ODNB).
Sams, Joseph (1784–1860), bookseller and dealer in antiquities. Autograph letter signed to an unnamed correspondent, 2 sides, 4to, Darlington 26th May 1825, acknowledging the receipt of a bill for "55£ 2/- being the amnt. for a collection of books, purchased by the late Sir. M. Sykes in the year 1822", and complaining that where a bill has not settled for several years "Interest ought to be paid ........ particularly, as in this case, when the books bought of me by Sir M. Sykes, have been about a year since resold, to such great advantage to the executors, a number of the said works having actually brought treble, & even fourfold, the sums I charged them ...... I can most readily prove by a specific reference to ...... Sir M. S’s sale catalogue, (priced) now, before me ....... 5£, at least, Interest, ought to be sent, being justly due, & is only about 3 pr. cent, on the debt". Couple of contemporary highlights in red ink, and the top of the page trimmed, removing some unwanted (?) words on the reverse - the text is contiguous from the recto to the verso.
In 1824 Sams closed a school he had been running, to open a bookseller's shop
in Darlington, from which he published A descriptive catalogue of a valuable collection of
books etc. (1822–6), containing 8071 entries. The books referred to in
his letter, had
been bought by Sir Mark Sykes (1771–1823), who assembled an extremely fine
collection, strong in Elizabethan literature and in fifteenth-century editions
of the classics. Sykes died on 16 February 1823 and his books were sold at
auction in 3700 lots over a twenty-five day period, producing nearly £18,000.
CONNECTIONS WITH ADAM SMITH
SCOTT, William (died 1802?), naval captain. Manuscript receipt signed by Captain William Scott, 1 side (16 lines) on a half folio sheet (about 6.5 x 8 inches), Montrose 26th September 1786, with embossed Four Pence duty stamp, recording the receipt from "Colonel Robert Douglas of Strathendry & Lieut. Colonel William Ann Douglas of the third Regiment of Foot Guards, the sum of Ten Pounds Sterling, being one year's interest ............ of the principal sum of two hundred pounds .......". With a manuscript docket and ink 'Tenn Pence Quire' stamp on the reverse.
Scott's debtors, Robert Douglas (1716-1803) and his son William Ann Douglas (1753-1803) are interesting by virtue of their family connection to the famous moral philosopher and political economist Adam Smith (1723-1790). Colonel Robert Douglas was Adam Smith's uncle, his sister Margaret (1694-1784) having married Smith's father in 1720. William Ann Douglas (1753-1803) was the eldest of five sons of Col. Robert Douglas and his wife Cecilia. His brother David Douglas (1769-1819) spent his later childhood in the home of Adam Smith, who left David his library in his will.
Captain William Scott RN of Montrose is possibly the Captain William Scott whose death is recorded on 29 April 1802 "late of Bombay" at Chessel's Court, Edinburgh . His son David Scott Esq was attached to the Bengal Civil Service, whose daughter Dorothea Helen Scott married William Piper Esq in 1864 in New South Wales, Australia.
SHARPE, Lieutenant-General Matthew (1774-1846), army officer and landowner. Autograph letter signed to John Hope Johnstone Esq of Annandale, Rachills, Moffat, 3 sides plus address panel (with postmark and part bof seal), 4to, Hoddom Castle [Dumfries], 26th July [postmark 1826], . Accepting an invitation to dine, but circumspect about joining a shooting party since fracturing his leg, and commenting upon absentee landowners: “Ireland itself scarcely exceed this Country in Absenteeism, nor do I see how a sufficient number of respectable Country gentlemen can be got together as will impress his Grace with that opinion of the Country, we would wish to be first on his mind. Then, that distinction, Gentleman, in these times of liberation has got so extended that unless curbed by the distraction of Freeholder, or some other which would vastly compress, its limits, would send forth specimens in my humble opinion not likely to give him very high notions of the Aristocracy of the Country.” Address panel soiled, and hole next to seal and paper torn from edge by seal (affects a few words).
Lieutenant-General Matthew Sharpe (1774-1846) took over the estate at Hoddom, upon the death of his father Charles Sharpe in 1813. He commissioned in 1826 the Edinburgh architect William Burn, to design extensive additions to the old castle, which were completed about 1832. Sharpe became Liberal M.P. for the Dumfries burghs from 1832 to 1841. His correspondent John James Hope-Johnstone (1796- 1876) held the office of Hereditary Steward of Annandale & Hereditary Keeper of Lochmaben Palace.
SHERLOCK, William (1639/40–1707), Church of England clergyman and religious controversialist. Affadavit signed by William Sherlock, 1 side on paper 4 x 7 ins., 10th January 1703: “I Willm Sherlock Doctor of Divinity; Dean of Ye Cathedral Church of St. Pauls London, & Mtr of Ye Temples in London aforesaid do hereby Certify that Mrs. Charity Woodruffe Ye Daughter & Nominee of Unton Croke late of Ye Inner Temple London aforesaid Esqr deceased, in a certain Order No.419 is living. Witness my hand this tenth day of January Ano’ Dni’ 1703”. Repair to reverse, and left margin heavily browned and nibbled.
Sherlock was a staunch supporter of Church of England orthodoxy, who defended in print and in the pulpit, the Church of England against Catholicism and dissenters, often courting widespread controversy.
Unton Croke was a parliamentarian army officer and lawyer who died in 1694. In his will he gave only token sums to his daughters Drury and Bridgett, and divided most of the remainder of his estate between his other daughters Charity, Gratious, and Eleanor Snow. ODNB
JOSIAH WEDGWOOD ACCOUNT
SINCLAIR, Sir John, first baronet (1754–1835), agricultural improver, politician, and codifier of ‘useful knowledge’. Autograph letter signed in third person, to Mr Wedgwood, Greek Street, Soho, 1 side, folio, with address panel and endorsement overleaf, plus broken seal, Whitehall, Friday March 19th 1790. “Sir John Sinclair wishes to have the inclosed account [not present] settled and paid But he thinks that there are two or three Articles, which he brought with him from Abroad, which were sent to Mr. Wedgewood, and which he should be glad to have returned. The Bearer will settle the account, that has been delivered”. Address panel soiled, and seal has torn a section of paper, since repaired.
After the death of his first wife in 1785, Sinclair was appointed by William Pitt commercial negotiator to the northern courts. He went through Denmark, Sweden, Russia, Poland, Prussia, Austria, Hanover, the Netherlands, Flanders, and France, meeting the leading political figures and making links that he was to use later with the network of scientific contacts built up by Sir Joseph Banks. Upon his return, he launched in 1790 the idea of a survey of the state of the country, which was to become the twenty-one volumes of the Statistical Account of Scotland. ODNB
Josiah Wedgwood (1730–1795), master potter, had his London showrooms at numbers 12-13 Greek St from 1774-1797.
Sinclair, Sir John, first baronet (1754–1835), agricultural improver, politician, and codifier of ‘useful knowledge’. Autograph letter signed to Mr McLeod of the [Glasgow] Courier, 5 sides plus address panel on integral blank, 8vo, 133 George St. Edinburgh 24th February 1827, speculating on the removal of Lord Liverpool "There is a chance, by the removal of Lord Liverpool, of our returning to the ancient policy of this country; for his private character gave him great influence in bringing about the mischievous public projects which he recommended", and appending a list of four queries for McLeod on trade with America. Glued rear edge indicating removal from an album, and base of letter nibbled affecting a few words of text.
Sinclair developed his enthusiasm for “useful knowledge” after travelling abroad in 1785, and in 1790 launched the idea of a survey of the state of Scotland, which was to materialise as the twenty-one volume Statistical Account of Scotland. In 1793 Pitt supported him in the formation of a Board of Agriculture, through which Sinclair gave birth to an important series of county agricultural reports for Britain. He stepped down from politics in 1811 in the face of bankruptcy, but secured his Caithness parliamentary seat for his son.
On 17 February 1827 the Prime Minister Lord Liverpool suffered a stroke, and in April the King appointed George Canning to replace him (although Canning died in August the same year).
Edward Hedley was born near Elsdon, Northumberland in 1784 and became a merchant living in Cheviot House, Montego Bay, St James, Jamaica, where he died in 1829. The Slave Registers indicate that he had 8 slaves in his ownership in 1826. Other members of the Hedley family were involved in plantations previously, including his brother John.
Samuel Francis Delap J.P., D.L., of Monellan, Ireland, born in 1776, married in 1800 Susan, youngest daughter of the Hon. John Bennett, Judge of the Queen's Bench in Ireland. The Slave Registers indicate one hundred and twenty seven slaves in his ownership in 1823.
SOUTH SEA COMPANY STOCK. Autograph instructions signed by Frances Lambart to Mr Child, in faded ink on 1 side of paper c.4 x 6 inches, March 15th 1727, “Sir pray pay my dauther Ann Lambart my half years South Sea devedent due at Christmass last past for five hundred and fifty pound de mony South Sea Stock and this shall bee your discharg from your humble sarvant Frances Lambart”, with, in another hand, on the verso “£12-7-11” and on the recto “Ann Lambart”. Hole in the centre, grubby, and one corner damaged.
The Hon.Mrs Frances Lambart is listed at no. 40 Sackville Street, London between 1730-1750, and is succeeded 1751–74 by Colonel Richard Lambart, later sixth Earl of Cavan, to whom she is related (Survey of London: volumes 31 and 32: St James Westminster, Part 2,1963). Francis Child (c.1684–1740) became head of the banking house upon his brother’s death in 1721, which traded thereafter as Francis Child Esq & Co.
SOUTH SEA COMPANY STOCK. Instruction signed by Uxbridge and Guilford to Charles Lockyer, accountant to the South Sea Company, 1 side on paper slip 210 x 80mm, 14th February 1728 , docketed on reverse. "Pray permitt the Bearer Mr Antho. Ralph to accept for us £1400 South Sea Stock, which was transferred to our Joint Account the 14th day of Augt. last, and pay him dividends that are now due ......". Right hand edge crumpled, and with small stab-hole in centre. PHOTO
The document was issued by Henry Paget, first earl of Uxbridge (c.1663–1743), and Francis North, second Baron Guilford (1673–1729) who held a joint account at the South Sea Company. Charles Lockyer, Chief Accountant to the Company, gave important evidence in the Government's enquiry into the crash of 1720-21, without the benefit of the Company's cashier Charles Knight, who had fled abroad.
CHURCHILL - SPENCER FAMILY
SPENCER, Almeric John Churchill (1834-1864). Ordination document for Almeric John Churchill Spencer as Deacon to Bishopthorpe Parish Church, North Yorkshire, part printed on vellum (9 1/2 x 7 inches) with manuscript entries and the signature and seal of Thomas Musgrave, Archbishop of York, dated 7th June 1857. PHOTO
Almeric John Churchill Spencer was born in Buxton, Derbyshire, the son of the Rt Rev George John Trevor Spencer (1799 –1866) and Harriet Theodora, daughter of Sir Benjamin Hobhouse. Almeric was the great grandson of the 3rd Duke of Marlborough. He married Isabella Elizabeth Fane (1835-1924) in 1857 by whom he had two daughters, Henriette and Adelaide.
Almeric Spenser’s father George John Trevor Spencer held the perpetual curacy of Buxton, Derbyshire, until his appointment as the Bishop of Madras in 1837. Suffering from ill health in India, he resigned his see in 1849, and was afterwards minister of the Marbœuf Chapel (English Protestant) in Paris, and then chancellor of St Paul's Cathedral. His last post was as Rector of Walton on the Wolds, Leicestershire. In the 1861 census, the extended Spencer family of George and Harriet Spencer are recorded at their home at Edge Moor, Hartington Upper Quarter, near Buxton, Derbyshire (including Almeric, his wife Isabella and two children Harriette and Adelaide).
DROWNED ON THE TITANIC
STEAD, William Thomas (1849–1912), newspaper editor and spiritualist. Autograph letter initialled on an illustrated postcard, Sebastopol, 23rd October 1898, to Miss M.G.Burnett, Review of Reviews Office, Mowbray House, Temple, London, sending greetings “from this famous old fortress which was once so terribly real a place to millions. We are having a very good time and hope to return before Nov 15. I have sent the program & the [?] to London today & shall I hope get well started with my Christmas number this week. I hope that you are all well, that Miss Bacon is cheerful though came as silent as the grave’. The address panel with adhering paper probably removed from an album, damaging the central image on the postcard verso. PHOTO
William Stead left the Pall Mall Gazette in 1890 to found the monthly Review of Reviews, a highly successful venture with counterparts which he set up in the United States and Australia. In the Review of Reviews he advocated the union of English-speaking peoples, the expansion and federation of the British empire, Irish home rule, and the maintenance of morality in government and politics. He endeavoured to popularize projects of his friend Cecil Rhodes; to advance the political careers of John Morley and Alfred Milner; to improve the spiritual and moral quality of British life; to facilitate Anglo-Russian and Anglo-American understanding and amity; and to support the suffragist and temperance movements and the work of the Salvation Army. He endeavoured to launch a protest movement against the Turkish massacres in Armenia (1895–6) and, while remaining an ardent advocate of British naval supremacy, called for arms limitation to obviate a ruinous arms race between the great powers and the establishment of a system of international arbitration to avert devastating wars (1894–8). In a period that began with his active involvement in the promotion of the First Hague Peace Conference (1898–9) and lasted until his death fourteen years later, Stead worked tirelessly on behalf of the world peace movement.
Stead drowned at sea in the Titanic disaster on 15 April 1912, while travelling to speak on world peace at the ‘Great Men and Religions’ conference in New York city on 22 April. It was typical of his generosity, courage, and humanity that Stead was last seen leading women and children to the safety of the stricken liner's lifeboats. (ODNB)
ABOLITION OF AUDITORS OF THE IMPRESTS 1785
STUART, John, first marquess of Bute (1744–1814), diplomatist. Two autograph letters, signed Mountstuart to Sir William Musgrave, both 3 sides 4to, with old mount marks to verso.
The first letter Hallinbury 31st May 1785, informing Sir William that he has an interview with Mr Pitt the following day, saying “I have perfect confidence in Mr. Pitts handsome intentions relative to the quantum of the compensation but which I entirely attribute to your friendly exertions. I confess at the same time I dread the violence of the Chancellor; so much so, that I thought it a matter of prudence to use some endeavours to stop his mouth. I have accordingly written to Lord Weymouth pressing him in the strongest manner to bring that about; and in order to have two strings to my Bow, I have prevailed with Lady Bute to make a point with Lord Gower to exert himself”, and suggests “An easier method that all this is to back the bill to the supply, as Lord Rockingham did in the case of the reforms of the Civil list; and then the Chancellor may growl and bellow as much as he pleases”. Pasted onto the blank foot of the letter is a supplementary note to Sir William dated ‘Wednesday [1st June] auditor’s office ½ past four’ saying he urgently needs to see Sir William that afternoon. Both pieces are docketed as received 1st June 1785.
The second letter headed and dated Auditor’s Office. 7th June 1785, informing Sir William that “£7000 still remains the compensation of the Auditor. Mr. Pitt behaved to me with great openness and civility; and appeared desirous of finding an excuse for agreeing to the original proposal. I immediately produced the little scrap of paper I prepared yesterday at your house, which he approved of and put in his pocket. I touched also on the opposition in the house of Lords; but he has entirely quieted my apprehensions by an assurance that he meant the bill to pass as Minister; nor should he look upon any alteration in the sum given to us, as the fair equivalent; he was pledged to stand by the bargain he had made ……….. I must tell you a good one of Lord Sondes who came with Mr. Pitt whilst I was there. When the clause enacting the annuity should be paid clear of all deduction was talked of, Mr. Pitt said, certainly, for there are no outgoings in this, you pay no land tax – I replied no. When we were in the street Lord Sondes frightened to death said my Lord we are in another scrape, you have assured Mr. Pitt we have no outgoings when we both pay the Land tax for our respective offices – meaning the houses we hire.” Docketed at the head of the letter “Recd. 7 June. Answd. 8 June”. PHOTO
The two items £300
John Stuart, first marquess of Bute (1744–1814) was the eldest surviving child of John Stuart, third earl of Bute, prime minister, and his wife Mary Wortley Montagu, and was styled Lord Mount Stuart (or Mountstuart) from birth until his father's death in 1792. He was a Tory Member of Parliament for Bossiney from 1766 to 1776 and was subsequently elevated to the Peerage as Baron Cardiff, of Cardiff Castle, though he was still often known by his title of Lord Mountstuart. In 1781 he was appointed to the sinecure of Auditor of the Imprests alongside Lewis Watson, 1st Baron Sondes. It was a profitable office of the Exchequer established in 1559, responsible for auditing the accounts of officers of the English crown to whom money was issued for government expenditure. During the American War of Independence, the government came under great pressure to ensure that its revenue was properly spent, which led to a number of acts abolishing many sinecures. This movement ended with the abolition of the Auditors of the Imprests in 1785 and their replacement by five Commissioners for Auditing the Public Accounts. These letters are written at the exact time of the abolition of the sinecure, and provide an insight into the process of compensation when Mountstuart was awarded the huge sum of £7,000.
Sir William Musgrave, sixth baronet (1735–1800), was an administrator, print collector, and antiquary. A notably effective customs commissioner, he became in 1785 one of the five members of the new Commission for Auditing the Public Accounts, taking over the duties of Mountstuart and Sondes who had allowed serious arrears to build up and were suppressed. The commission answered directly to William Pitt, who served as chancellor of the exchequer as well as first lord of the Treasury.
TAIT, Archibald Campbell (1811–1882), archbishop of Canterbury. Autograph letter signed A.C.London [as Bishop of London], incomplete letter 4 sides, 8vo, [to Lord Palmerston, 1862] , declining the appointment to the archbishopric of York "I have to consider that a very great assistance to me in the performance of my present duties is derived from that complete knowledge of the details of my work in London which six years experience of the Diocese has secured - that I might find the distant and untried work of York less congenial, and, though less pressing, more difficult for me - that, without some very strong counterbalancing reason, it is not desirable that I should leave plans which I have begun but scarcely matured in London .................. I am sure, when your Lordship reads this, you will not think that I have lightly set aside the very tempting offer made and renewed to me, or that I should be justified in now altering my decision".
In 1856 Lord Palmerston
offered Tait the bishopric of London, which he gladly accepted and where he made
his greatest contribution to the ministry of the Church of England. The demands
of his office took a toll on his health, evident to himself from fainting spells
and to the public from cancelled appointments. This prompted Lord Palmerston in
1862 to offer him the more prestigious but less demanding archbishopric of York,
which he declined [as set out in this letter]. Appreciation of Tait's leadership
prompted Queen Victoria to insist on his appointment to the archbishopric of
Canterbury when it fell vacant in October 1868. Disraeli, who faced a general
election in which he needed to harvest votes from supporters of the established
church, wanted to appoint a bishop whose doctrinal orthodoxy was above
suspicion, and he gave way to the queen reluctantly. ODNB
SUPPRESSION OF THE OPIUM TRADE
TAIT, Archibald Campbell (1811–1882), archbishop of Canterbury. Autograph letter on mourning paper signed A.C.Canterbury [as Archbishop of Canterbury], 3 sides, 8vo, Addington Park, Croydon, Dec 19th 1879, to The Rev. The Secretary Anglo-Oriental Socy. for Suppression of the Opium Trade, thanking him for his letter of the 18th "enclosing a copy of an Address to the Electors of the United Kingdom on the subject of the Opium Trade "which you asked me to sign ........ This however, I think it would hardly be becoming in me to do. Much as I regret the evil which the opium trade causes, I do not feel that I ought to come forward, in the way you propose, in a matter connected with the approaching election". Fragments of red paper seal at two corners.
The Anglo-Oriental Society for the Suppression of the Opium Trade was founded in London in November 1874, and quickly attracted the patronage of the Archbishop of Canterbury. The Society's request referred to in this letter was apparently however, a step too far. In the following spring (1880) Disraeli and the Conservatives lost the general election, and the Liberals returned under Gladstone, giving the reformers (most of whom were Liberal supporters) hope for their campaign. Tait re-affirmed his support, but died in 1882. Ten years later, Gladstone, faced with growing pressure for reform, agreed to a public inquiry, but it was not until 1905 that parliament, under another Liberal government, finally and overwhelmingly supported the abolition of the opium trade.
POLITICS IN THE JAMAICAN ASSEMBLY 1794
TAYLOR, Simon (c1765-1848), sugar tycoon of Jamaica. Duplicate letter signed to Stephen Fuller, 1 side, 4to, Kingston, Jamaica 13th December 1794, with address panel on integral blank bearing straight line JAMAICA stamp and Inland Office Bishop mark dated 18 March 1795. Informing Fuller that he had written to him by the last Packet "that the House of Assembly had chose Mr Robert Sewell the Agent" and that he should expect to receive from the Speaker a letter with the Vote of the House thanking him for his "long, faithful and meretorious service, which was carried N: C: and they have further voted you a Sum of £500 Guineas, to be paid out in any way you may think proper ........... By this you will perceive that it has not been from any dissatisfaction with your Conduct that they have not appointed you, but to prevent Mr.Edwards's Friends bringing in him, in case of any accident happening to you, and which they would have certainly attempted ......... He has not by any means added to his Popularity from his Southampton Attempt. And however People may be dissatisfied with Mr Pitts conduct, Every Man that has anything he can call his own by no means wish that the constitution should be overthrown nor England and the Colonies in the same state of Anarchy as France and her Colonies are in". Right hand margin frayed affecting text, and with piece of paper missing from integral blank where the seal was broken. The letter comes with a full typescript transcription. PHOTO
Simon Taylor was born in Jamaica, the eldest son of Patrick Taylor, a merchant in Kingston, Jamaica. He became an attorney for absentee planters which brought in a substantial income enabling him to purchase many sugar plantations, and he played a significant role in Jamaican politics. Lady Maria Nugent, wife of the Governor of Jamaica, describes him in her Journal in 1806 as “...by much the richest proprietor in the island, and in the habit of accumulating money so as to make his nephew and heir one of the most wealthy subjects of His Majesty. In strong opposition to Government at present and violent in his language against the King’s Ministers, for their conduct towards Jamaica. He has great influence in the Assembly...”.
Taylor's correspondent Stephen Fuller was from 1764 English agent for the Jamaica Assembly and with his brother did much to further the Jamaica interest, being the author of several pamphlets, notably on slavery. This letter evidently relates to Robert Sewell being been voted onto the Assembly in place of Fuller, although other sources (see ODNB) suggest that Fuller remained on the Assembly until his death in 1799. Robert Sewell (1751-1828) was (from 1780) Attorney General of Jamaica and was a pro-slavery member of the Parliament. He returned to England in 1795 and became in 1796 member of parliament for Grampound. He spoke in the House of Commons on behalf of the West Indian Planters interest, and 1797 argued that it would be economically impossible to abolish slavery.
The reference to Mr Edwards refers to Bryan Edwards (1743–1800), planter and politician, and author of The History, Civil and Commercial, of the British Colonies in the West Indies, published in 1793. In his early years in Jamaica Edwards learned about the sugar plantation business and was made a partner in managing his uncle's large holdings, and became heavily involved in Jamaican politics. Edwards and his fellow planters engaged in debates and enacted legislation to protest against restrictions imposed on trade and shipping between the British West Indies and the United States, supporting reform of the Atlantic slave trade, but opposing its abolition. In 1792 he left Jamaica and settled in Southampton, becoming a highly successful West India merchant and the founder of a bank. (ODNB)
It was the practice, as in this case, for duplicate copies of transatlantic letters to be sent by different packets in case of shipwreck.
REPARATION FOR LOSSES IN SHIP COLLISION
THORNTON, Ann. Autograph letter signed to Edward Mosley Esq, Newcastle, 2 sides, folio, Sunderland, February 12th 1790, with address panel bearing a Sunderland hand stamp, broken seal (piece of paper detached), and in which Edward Mosley has written and signed a reply dated Newcastle 17th February 1790 on a blank space. Ann Thornton writes informing Mosley of the loss of her son on board the Edward "which ship was run on board by the Grafton of your port the 19th of Decr last off Robin Hood's Bay ............ My husband & I flatter'd ourselves of our Son's being a Support to us ........ it was the first voyage for himself after serving his time ........ My husband is lamed in one of his hands by a misfortune he met with by a Gun during the late War which prevents him often getting a birth" and appends a copy of a letter received from Mr Jackson owner of the Edward on 19th January, and asks that an answer is addressed to Robert Thornton in Sunderland. In Edward Mosley's reply dated 17th February he sympathises with the loss of their son but states that "upon the strictest enquiry find there is not the least ground from Mr Jacksons report of ye Grafton running on board the Edward".
JACKSON, Thomas. Autograph letter signed ('for my Father in his absence') to Messrs Mosley & Airey, Newcastle upon Tyne, 2 sides, 4to, London April 17th 1790, with address panel bearing a circular date stamp, broken seal (piece of paper detached). Saying that his father has "made himself perfectly satisfied that it was your ship the Grafton which run foul of his Brig Edward and was the cause of her being sunk ....... one Man being drowned ......... having suffered a sufficient time to elapse for you to make every Enquiry about the fact.....and treat with him [his father] about the damage.............. if no reply is recd from you in due course, you will think my Father (under whose Direction I act) justifiable in forthwith communicating an Action to recover the Loss".
The two items £75
The family concerned may possibly be Robert and Ann Thornton of Sunderland who are found in the IGI having had four children, Thomas christened 24th April 1768; Robert born 1st March 1772; Matthias christened 28th August 1774 and Elizabeth christened 15th September 1776. Thomas Thornton's dates would fit with the son who was drowned as he is referred to in the letter as having reached 22 years. Local research would be interesting in following up the outcome of this case.
EARLY PLANS FOR PORTUGAL'S FIRST RAILWAY
TOJAL, Count, Portuguese Finance Minister. Autograph letter signed to (his cousin) Benjamin Oliveira Esq, London, 2 sides, large 4to, Lisbon, 4th November 1844, introducing him to his friend Snr Antonio Cabral de Sa' Norguma, Master of the Royal Mint (who was in London) so "that you may obtain from him every information on the subject of rail roads in this Country while he is here with you, he being perfectly qualified to afford you every elucidation on this important object", and thanking him for his communication of the 10th "[I] still think however that a rail road from here to Oporto, even taking a slant direction in order to include other large Towns as you suggest, will not serve the purpose ........ Mr Cabal de Sa'Norguma will better explain all the circumstances to you".
The first proposal for a railway system in Portugal was put forward in 1842 by Costa Cabral, the Portuguese prime-minister, who suggested building two railway lines (from Lisbon to Oporto and Lisbon to Badajoz), but the idea was rejected. This was followed in 1844 by Benjamin de Oliveira's proposal to Count Tojal to build a railway line between Lisbon and Oporto, passing through Santarém, Leiria, Coimbra and Aveiro, which is referred to in part in this letter as not serving the purpose. By 19th December of 1844 the Portuguese Public Works Company was founded with the objective of undertaking "all the major works legally authorised for the improvement of communications in the country under the Government's supervision", and despite a contract being awarded in 1845 to build a railway linking Lisbon to the Spanish frontier, the project was suspended because of political instability and the company was wound up in 1848.
From 1851 of major period of regeneration began in Portugal which exploited technological advances, in particular the development of railways, and the first railway in Portugal opened in 1856 between Lisbon and Carregado.
TOWNSHEND, George Ferrars [alias George Compton], third Marquess Townshend (1778–1855), disinherited aristocrat. Autograph letter in the third person to Mr G. Doo, Engraver, 10 Adams Terrace, Kentish Town, 1 side plus integral blank with address panel with seal and postal franks, 4to, 58 Portland Place, Thursday 3d July 1834, enquiring “The Engraving of the “2 Boys Heads” he supposes is not forward enough yet to be seen ……….. Should Mr. Doo be passing Portland Place some morning the ensuing week or following one L T has a Head by B-----andt He thinks Mr. Doo would be gratified in seeing”. Small piece of paper removed from blank edge by seal, and remains of paper along blank edge indicating removal from an album. PHOTO
Townshend was known as Lord Chartley and Lord
Leicester before succeeding as marquess in 1811, but he had a serious dispute
with his father over the use of the title of earl of Leicester, and was
subsequently disinherited by him in favour of his younger brother, Charles.
Reasons for the rupture were not made explicit. His marriage in 1807 to Sarah
Chatteris was a disaster and they separated in 1808, following which he lived
chiefly at Genoa, where he was known as Mr Compton. His correspondent George
Thomas Doo (1800–1886) was an engraver, appointed in 1836 historical
engraver-in-ordinary to William IV. ODNB
TRADE & THE EAST INDIA COMPANY. Autograph letter signed M.L.Newton to his son Philip, 1 side, folio, London, December 9th 1806, with integral blank bearing address panel, regarding East India warrants for the purchase of carnelian beads, paperwork required for their export, and details relating to the sums involved, the goods to be shipped to Buenos Aires.
Moses Levy Newton and his sons were London based Jewish merchants active in trans-atlantic trade. The recipient of the letter, Philip Levy Newton, was born circa 1785 in London, but died very young in about 1812. His brother Coleman Levy Newton (c1784-c1834) was a West Indies merchant, of 5 Great Prescott Street, Goodman's Fields, Stepney, whose papers are in the Guildhall Library and National Archives.
Waldegrave, James, first Earl Waldegrave (1684–1741), diplomatist and politician. Affadavit signed by Waldegrave, countersigned J.Burnaby, and witnessed by Ja: Reynolds, 17th January 1737 , with a fine black armorial wax seal, 1 side, on cut down folio sheet, certifying that "Mrs. Elizabeth Ogleby is alive at Paris this eleventh day of January – one thousand seven hundred and thirty eight". PHOTO
Waldegrave was appointed to the prestigious Paris embassy in April 1730, following Charles Townshend's resignation from the ministry. Paris was a vital diplomatic centre for the exiled Stuart court, and from the outset Waldegrave closely followed Jacobite affairs, cultivating spies and diplomatic contacts. From February to late April 1738 Waldegrave was on leave in England, and received the blue ribbon of a knight of the Garter.
The subject of the affadavit might possibly be Elizabeth Ogilby, formerly companion of Madame de Gouvernet (Esther d' Hervart c.1636–1722), and one of only two beneficiaries of Madame de Gouvernet's will, other than her family and the refugee hospital.
WALPOLE, Robert, first earl of Orford (1676–1745), prime minister. Autograph letter signed to Mr Dodington, 1 side 4to with integral blank, docketed, Whitehall October 10th 1723, telling his correspondent that “although the new vacancy, that has happen’d, may contribute to make us easy with regard to other people what concerns you was before as much determin’d as ‘tis my power to determine it, & I question not but upon ye King’s return you will immediately find ye good effects of it” and adding “I suppose Paul is with you, & as he is stout, I beg he will be merciful, & whatever havock he makes with yr game abroad I hope he will not be unconscionable in his recreations with in doors”. Paper with folds and creases.
Robert Walpole’s correspondent was the politician and diarist George Bubb Dodington (1690/91–1762), whose political career was on the ascendant in the early 1720s. Walpole’s own standing at the end of 1723 had never been higher with the Townshend–Walpole ministry being firmly established, and he saw in Dodington an useful ally with his recent appointments as lord lieutenant of Somerset and the clerkship of the pells in Ireland, plus a successful election campaign at Bridgwater. In April 1724 Walpole selected Dodington to join him at the Treasury board as a lord commissioner, succeeding Henry Pelham, the new secretary at war.
[WALPOLE, Robert (1676–1745), prime minister]. Receipted account signed by Jos. Norcott, 1 side, 4to, June 24 1720, relating to repairs, and making and engraving cutlery belonging to the Rt Honble. Robt. Walpole, “Recd the Contents by the hand of Mr Robt Mann in full of all demands, June 24 1720 £11-11- Jos. Norcott”. Docketed on reverse. Right hand edge ragged with some paper loss - see PHOTO
Walpole's return to power in 1720 was reflected in
his decision to rebuild the family home at Houghton. In 1700, 1716, and 1719 a
certain amount of work had been undertaken modernizing the old house, and the
decision to rebuild completely was taken in 1720. His secretary was Robert Mann,
mentioned in the document.
LOWESTOFT EXCISE OFFICER / CONSTABLE / SURVEYOR 1789-1805
WEBB, George of Lowestoft. Manuscript notebook of George Webb, variously describing himself as Officer of Excise, Constable and Surveyor of the Highways for the Parish of Lowestoft, with 174 pages of close-written manuscript (5 leaves with no MS entries) bearing dates ranging from 1785 to 1805. The contents cover notes and tables relevant to Webb's duties under subjects including window taxes; turnpike trustees; repair of roads; accessories; shop tax; male and female servants; carriages; search warrants; seized goods; proclamations; selling beer without a licence; bread assizes; auction duties; justice's clerks fees; pawning; duties on spirits; militia; surveyor of highways matters; hawkers & pedlars; stamps on receipts, and more. He includes many sample forms of legal documents, judgements etc mostly actual cases including the names of the individuals involved. A highly interesting working notebook relevant to Lowestoft and the wider county of Suffolk, citing a very large number of names of local people. Bound in contemporary full leather (neatly rebacked), with one of two brass clasps still preserved. PHOTO
George Webb identifies himself as an Officer of Excise in several of the earlier entries bearing a date of 1785. In entries dated 1789 he is identified as a constable and a Surveyor of the Highways, evidently performing two or more parish officer roles. Constables were elected by the parish and had a wide range of duties including the levying of taxes. The Surveyor of Highways was an unpaid officer chosen by Justices from a list of landowners in the parish, who was obliged to survey the highways three times a year and organise road repairs. It is very interesting to find Webb occupying appointments as Excise officer, constable and Surveyor of Highways, apparently concurrently.
This may be the George Webb found in the IGI, born in Lowestoft in 1727, who died 27th May 1812. He married Hannah Taylor, and had at least two children, Lewis (born about 1752, died 1 April 1790) and Charles (born 12 January 1771, died 1 October 1771).
WILBERFORCE, Samuel (1805–1873), bishop of Oxford and of Winchester. Autograph letter signed SOxon to a Mr Pickard, 8vo, 4 sides of a bifolium, Brussels, April 8 1864, expressing his pleasure that his correspondent has "obtained a position which will I trust prove both advantageous to you in its temporal accidents but an opportunity of great usefulness", and acknowledging "the successful labours which you have been enabled to give to the poor people of Sandford and pray God to return them abundantly into your own bosom". He closes in saying "I trust that nothing will prevent my holding the Confirmation you desire. I shall be ready to receive Mr Dodson’s nomination of any successor on whom he & you may agree". The joint of the bifolium is neatly repaired with archival tape where there are two paper losses (not affecting text).
Samuel Wilberforce was the son of William Wilberforce the antislavery philanthropist, and was ordained an Anglican priest in 1829; was appointed bishop of Oxford in 1845; and in 1869 was appointed bishop of Winchester. He was a defender of orthodoxy and a frequent critic of liberal bishops, dissenters, and biblical scholars, and was a major figure in the preservation of the Oxford Movement, which sought to reintroduce 17th-century High Church ideals into the Church of England. He famously attacked Charles Darwin’s theory of evolution in an exchange with the biologist Thomas Huxley in 1860.
In Easter 1864 Wilberforce journeyed to the Continent, visiting Paris, Antwerp and Brussels where he performed baptisms and held confirmations. He began his return trip to England on April 8th when this letter was written. The reference to Sandford is probably to the village of Sandford-on-Thames near Oxford.
WORONZOW, Count Simon (1744-1832), Russian diplomat. Autograph letter signed to ‘My Lord’[George John, 2nd Earl Spencer, First Lord of the Admiralty], 2 sides 4to, with integral blank, Richmond, 10th July 1798, in French, with translation into English written in pencil on the integral inside blank, thanking him for his letter informing him of the promotion of Lieutenant Michael Halliday as commander of the Woolwich, who Woronzow has recommended in profuse terms. He reports (translated) that ‘old Admiral Makazoff wrote me on the 21st of last month from Copenhagen, that he arrived there 2 days before, that he is occupied in providing himself with water, that the pilots have not arrived, but that if they do not arrive in 2 days, he will not wait for them and will leave without them, directing his course to the Nore’.
Count Woronzow resided in Britain from 1785 until his death in 1832, occupying the position of Russian ambassador to Great Britain between1785-1806. He was elevated to the rank of ambassador extraordinary and minister plenipotentiary in 1796, at an important time when Britain’s Navy was heavily involved in the French Revolution. Woronzow played an important diplomatic role in supporting the British Navy with assistance from the Imperial Russian Navy, a role which was rekindled following Nelson’s action at the Battle of the Nile in August 1798 (a few weeks after this letter was written). The French defeat opened the door to the formation of a Second Coalition in Europe, which Russia promptly signed up to, followed by England in 1799. Vice-Admiral Mikhail Makarov (Makazoff) had operated in conjunction with the British in the North Sea during the First Coalition (1793-1797).
Michael Halliday (1757-1829) was born in St Petersburg where his father practiced as a physician. He entered the Royal Navy in 1782, and later obtained a Lieutenancy on a Russian first-rate. Upon the outbreak of war with the French he returned to service in the Royal Navy, saw action at sea, and as this letter testifies was promoted as Commander of the Woolwich in 1798, a 44 gun fifth rate, armed en flûte.
WRIGHT, Thomas (1810–1877), historian and antiquary. Autograph letter signed to "My Dear Smith" [Charles Roach Smith], 1 side, 8vo, 24 Sydney Street, Brompton, Wednesday [no date], regarding archaeological matters "I believe you have found the Portus Adurni, but you must have a quiet fine day at it. The next thing to be inquired is, whether coins or other Roman antiquities have been found there. The opinion of a good geologist will be of use with regard to the reason for using the flints. Is the Norman tower faced with Flints?", and on other matters, including an enclosure from "Guest"; proofs to look over for a book; and offering to give him a duplicate book.
From about 1837 until his death Wright lived in London, residing for thirty or so years at 14 Sydney Street, Brompton. He published a huge volume of work on antiquarian, historical, literary and artistic subjects. A close friend was the antiquary Charles Roach Smith (to whom this letter is almost certainly written) who together founded the the British Archaeological Association in 1843. Smith was especially active in the excavation and study of Roman archaeology and Roman coins.
ARMADA YEAR 1588
[YELVERTON, Sir Christopher (1536/7–1612), judge and speaker of the House of Commons]. Indented vellum quitclaim document in a fine hand in English between Paul Streteley of Strixton, Northampton, and Christopher Yelverton of Easton Maudit, Northampton, in respect of land between Strixton and Bozeat parish, dated 15th April, 30th year of the reign of Queen Elizabeth , signed by Paul Streteley, 21 x 8 ½ inches, seal missing from tag, endorsed on the reverse with the signature of Richard Smith. PHOTO
Paul Streteley owned Chibenhurst manor, Oxfordshire until 1562-3, and from this date appears to have acquired land in and around Strixton, Northamptonshire. Of special interest is the grantee of the land in this quitclaim Christopher Yelverton (1536/7–1612) who was born in Norfolk, was a wealthy lawyer, M.P., J.P., queen's serjeant, judge and speaker of the House of Commons, and was knighted by James I. Yelverton had four sons and eight daughters, and although he complained about the expense of providing for such a large family, he was very active in the purchase of land in his adopted county of Northamptonshire, spending over £5,000 on properties in his lifetime (ODNB).
The document is of interest in other respects, including its style with the opening line ‘To all open people’ rather than ‘To all Christian people’, and it was drawn up on the eve of the Spanish Armada, when in April 1588 the final preparations were being made for the Armada to sail – a blessing was made to the Armada banner on 25th April, and a first attempt to sail took place on 28th May from Lisbon.
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